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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Psychiatry related information on Hermissenda

  • Specifically, activation of PKC mimics neurobiological correlates of classical conditioning in both Hermissenda and the rabbit, and the distribution of the enzyme within the rabbit hippocampus changes after Pavlovian conditioning [1].
  • Here we report the identification of a 24 kDa phosphoprotein (CSP24) associated with an intermediate stage of memory, distinct from short-term memory, detected after one-trial conditioning of Hermissenda [2].

High impact information on Hermissenda

  • Isolation of a G protein that is modified by learning and reduces potassium currents in Hermissenda [3].
  • Light paired with serotonin mimics the effect of conditioning on phototactic behavior of Hermissenda [4].
  • These results show that the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway is activated in Pavlovian conditioning of Hermissenda [5].
  • Hermissenda received either light (conditioned stimulus or CS) and rotation (unconditioned stimulus or US) paired (i.e., Pavlovian conditioning), light and rotation unpaired (pseudoconditioning), or no exposure to light and rotation [6].
  • Modulation of calcium current and diverse K+ currents in identified Hermissenda neurons by small cardioactive peptide B [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hermissenda

  • In addition, electrophysiological and morphological studies indicate that 5-HT may contribute to cellular plasticity detected in the visual system of Hermissenda produced by classical conditioning procedures [8].

Biological context of Hermissenda


Anatomical context of Hermissenda

  • The effects of serotonin (5-HT) and GABA on two Ca2+ currents, a transient low-voltage-activated current (tLVA) and a sustained high-voltage-activated current (sHVA) were examined in isolated photoreceptors of Hermissenda [14].
  • Protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme that plays an essential role in eukaryotic cell regulation (Nishizuka, 1988; Huang et al., 1989), is critical to memory storage processes both in the marine snail Hermissenda crassicornis and in the rabbit (Alkon et al., 1988; Bank et al., 1988; Olds et al., 1989) [1].
  • We have found that two treatments, 4-aminopyridine and high external K+, which preferentially reduce the transient K+ current also reduce the level of 32P incorporation in a 25,000 molecular weight phosphoprotein band in eyes and ganglia of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis [15].
  • Previous observations have implicated GABA as a neurotransmitter released by the vestibular sensory neurons ("hair cells") of the snail Hermissenda onto visual sensory neurons, the type B cells, whose cell bodies are the sites of biophysical and biochemical changes during and following Pavlovian conditioning [16].
  • These results indicate that GABA binding to G-protein-coupled receptors on Hermissenda B cells stimulates a PLA(2) signaling cascade that liberates AA, and that this free AA interacts with postsynaptic Ca(2+) to synergistically stimulate PKC and enhance neuronal excitability [17].

Associations of Hermissenda with chemical compounds

  • GABA-mediated synaptic interaction between the visual and vestibular pathways of Hermissenda [18].
  • The Hermissenda CNS C-kinase can also phosphorylate lysine-rich histone, a substrate for mammalian C-kinase [19].
  • 1. N-type (omega-conotoxin sensitive) calcium currents (ICa) were recorded in identified neurons in Hermissenda crassicornis using low-resistance patch electrodes (0.7 +/- 0.3 M omega; n = 101) under conditions that eliminated inward Na+ currents (choline ions substitution) and suppressed outward K+ currents (Cs+, tetraethylammonium, and 4-AP) [20].
  • In identified photoreceptors from the marine mollusc Hermissenda, recent evidence has suggested that GABA, as well as the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen, might simultaneously modulate multiple conductances on the postsynaptic membrane [21].
  • Neither the biophysical or biochemical effects were observed in Hermissenda exposed to unpaired light and rotation or in those trained in the presence of the selective PKC inhibitor NPC-15437 (which had no effect on synaptic interactions or light-induced generator potentials) [22].

Gene context of Hermissenda

  • Early reports indicated that both Hermissenda and squid CE also could bind GTP; however, the biochemical significance of GTP-binding and its relationship to calcium binding have remained unclear [23].
  • Accordingly, we have investigated the catalytic properties of C-kinase in Hermissenda CNS [19].
  • The 46- and 55-kDa phosphoproteins are putative structural proteins, and the 22-kDa phosphoprotein is proposed to be a protein kinase C substrate previously identified in Hermissenda following multitrial classical conditioning [24].
  • PP1 inhibitors depolarize Hermissenda photoreceptors and reduce K+ currents [25].
  • Similar exposure of homogenates of the Hermissenda nervous system to OAG and Ca2+ caused enhanced phosphorylation of specific proteins, indicating the presence of C-kinase in the Hermissenda nervous system [26].


  1. Discrimination learning alters the distribution of protein kinase C in the hippocampus of rats. Olds, J.L., Golski, S., McPhie, D.L., Olton, D., Mishkin, M., Alkon, D.L. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a 24 kDa phosphoprotein associated with an intermediate stage of memory in Hermissenda. Crow, T., Xue-Bian, J.J. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation of a G protein that is modified by learning and reduces potassium currents in Hermissenda. Nelson, T.J., Collin, C., Alkon, D.L. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Light paired with serotonin mimics the effect of conditioning on phototactic behavior of Hermissenda. Crow, T., Forrester, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by one-trial and multi-trial classical conditioning. Crow, T., Xue-Bian, J.J., Siddiqi, V., Kang, Y., Neary, J.T. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of short-term associative memory by calcium-dependent protein kinase. Matzel, L.D., Lederhendler, I.I., Alkon, D.L. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of calcium current and diverse K+ currents in identified Hermissenda neurons by small cardioactive peptide B. Acosta-Urquidi, J. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential modulation of voltage-dependent currents in Hermissenda type B photoreceptors by serotonin. Acosta-Urquidi, J., Crow, T. J. Neurophysiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence for the involvement of inositol trisphosphate but not cyclic nucleotides in visual transduction in Hermissenda eye. Sakakibara, M., Inoue, H., Yoshioka, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Serotonin activation of the ERK pathway in Hermissenda: contribution of calcium-dependent protein kinase C. Crow, T., Xue-Bian, J.J., Siddiqi, V., Neary, J.T. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Calcium waves and closure of potassium channels in response to GABA stimulation in Hermissenda type B photoreceptors. Blackwell, K.T. J. Neurophysiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Serotonin decreases a background current and increases calcium and calcium-activated current in pedal neurons of Hermissenda. Jacklet, J.W., Acosta-Urquidi, J. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Background illumination effects upon in vitro conditioning in Hermissenda. Tomsic, D., Alkon, D.L. Neurobiology of learning and memory. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Protein kinase and G-protein regulation of Ca2+ currents in Hermissenda photoreceptors by 5-HT and GABA. Yamoah, E.N., Crow, T. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and the transient, voltage-dependent potassium conductance in Hermissenda crassicornis. Neary, J.T., Alkon, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Intracellular calcium signals are enhanced for days after Pavlovian conditioning. Ito, E., Oka, K., Collin, C., Schreurs, B.G., Sakakibara, M., Alkon, D.L. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Receptor-stimulated phospholipase A(2) liberates arachidonic acid and regulates neuronal excitability through protein kinase C. Muzzio, I.A., Gandhi, C.C., Manyam, U., Pesnell, A., Matzel, L.D. J. Neurophysiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. GABA-mediated synaptic interaction between the visual and vestibular pathways of Hermissenda. Alkon, D.L., Anderson, M.J., Kuzirian, A.J., Rogers, D.F., Fass, D.M., Collin, C., Nelson, T.J., Kapetanovic, I.M., Matzel, L.D. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Ca2+/diacylglycerol-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase in the Hermissenda CNS. Neary, J.T., Naito, S., De Weer, A., Alkon, D.L. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Calcium current and inactivation in identified neurons in Hermissenda crassicornis. Yamoah, E.N., Kuzirian, A.M., Sanchez-Andres, J.V. J. Neurophysiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Diverse current and voltage responses to baclofen in an identified molluscan photoreceptor. Matzel, L.D., Muzzio, I.A., Rogers, R.F. J. Neurophysiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Incremental redistribution of protein kinase C underlies the acquisition curve during in vitro associative conditioning in Hermissenda. Muzzio, I.A., Talk, A.C., Matzel, L.D. Behav. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Calcium-regulated GTPase activity in the calcium-binding protein calexcitin. Nelson, T.J., Quattrone, A., Kim, J., Pacini, A., Cesati, V., Alkon, D.L. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Time-dependent increase in protein phosphorylation following one-trial enhancement in Hermissenda. Crow, T., Siddiqi, V., Zhu, Q., Neary, J.T. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. PP1 inhibitors depolarize Hermissenda photoreceptors and reduce K+ currents. Huang, H., Farley, J. J. Neurophysiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. C-kinase activation prolongs Ca2+-dependent inactivation of K+ currents. Alkon, D.L., Kubota, M., Neary, J.T., Naito, S., Coulter, D., Rasmussen, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
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