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Chemical Compound Review

AG-D-57153     N-[(3S,4S)-6-cyano-3-hydroxy- 2,2-dimethyl...

Synonyms: AC1L3TKD, AK-56842, CTK4B5604, LS-172681, HMS3268J05, ...
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Disease relevance of Y 26763

  • This investigation was undertaken to determine the possible protection against ischemia afforded by Y-26763, [(-)-(3S,4R)-4-(N- acetyl-N-hydroxyamino)-6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran- 3- ol], which has K+ channel-opening properties, in isolated rat hearts under working conditions [1].
  • We examined the effect of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator Y-26763 on focal cerebral ischemia in rats [2].

High impact information on Y 26763

  • RESULTS: Y-26763 increased GMBF, which was abolished by glibenclamide, and a CGRP-induced increase in GMBF was attenuated by glibenclamide [3].
  • We examined whether the effect of Y-26763, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, on cerebral blood flow is altered in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and, if altered, whether long-term antihypertensive treatment with cilazapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, is capable of preventing the change [4].
  • Vasodilator responses induced by ACh and Y-26763 were markedly attenuated in SHR compared to WKY rats, and treatment of SHR with genistein significantly improved the vasodilatation [5].
  • After feeding the rats for 2 months, we measured wall thickness, diameter of the basilar artery and its dilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh); Y-26763, an opener of ATP-sensitive potassium channels; and Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase [5].
  • 4. Forskolin (0.1 microm), 8-bromoguanosin 3', 5' cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP, 0.1 mm) and Y-26763 (10 microm) suppressed contractions without reducing the amplitude of either action potentials or Ca transients [6].

Biological context of Y 26763

  • 3. (+/-)-Cibenzoline, RS-2135, pirmenol, lorcainide and KW-3407 (class I antiarrhythmic drugs, Na+ channel blockers) suppressed Y-26763 responses in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values (in microM) of 6.6, 54, 68, 71 and 370, respectively [7].
  • 1. The mechanisms underlying the vasodilatation induced by (-)-(3S,4R)-4-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxyamino)-6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-3-ol (Y-26763) were investigated by measuring membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and isometric force in smooth muscle cells of the rabbit mesenteric artery [8].
  • In the single-dose study, peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of main active metabolite (Y-26763; M1) increased in parallel with dosage [9].
  • In non-ischemic conditions, Y-26763 significantly increased coronary flow without affecting cardiac output and heart rate [1].
  • Clonidine and idazoxan, which both bind to imidazoline-preferring binding sites with high affinity in various tissues, showed only a small inhibitory effect on Y-26763-induced K+ currents (IC50 780 microM and 955 microM, respectively) [10].

Anatomical context of Y 26763

  • Conclusions: Y-26763 may directly prevent electrical excitability of bladder smooth muscles by inhibiting spike discharges and also by hyperpolarizing the membrane [11].
  • 1. The novel K+ channel opener, Y-26763 induced outward K+ currents in voltage-clamped follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 58 microM [7].
  • Y-26763 also had no apparent effect on the myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity in the presence of Hist in alpha-toxin-skinned smooth muscles [12].
  • Overall, these results indicate that Y-26763 protects the canine myocardium from reversible ischemia/reperfusion injury, probably through activation of myocardial KATP channels which appear to be involved in affording protection during the ischemic insult and not at the reperfusion [13].
  • Y-26763, administered 10 min before the left circumflex coronary artery occlusion, at a dose (3 micrograms/kg, i.v.) lacking significant systemic hemodynamic effects, produced a rapid and marked (80%) recovery of the shortening of the ischemic segment [13].

Associations of Y 26763 with other chemical compounds

  • 4. Clofilium, E-4031, MS-551 and bretylium (class III antiarrhythmic drugs which increase the action potential duration) also suppressed Y-26763 responses concentration-dependently, IC50 values (in microM) were 3.3, 660, 980 and > or = 2000, respectively [7].
  • The rank order of potencies (IC50 in microM) of four isomers of diltiazem to block Y-26763-induced K+ currents was (+)-trans (4.2) > (-)-trans (13.3) > (-)-cis (35.8) > (+)-cis (75.9), which was, however, opposite to that of their potencies as Ca2+ channel antagonists [14].
  • (+)-Propranolol and mexiletine also suppressed Y-26763-induced K+ currents with IC50 values of 115 microM and 789 microM, respectively [15].
  • The Ca2+ channel antagonist, SD-3211 and its less potent (-)-isomer, SD-3212, suppressed Y-26763-induced K+ currents with similar IC50 values of 10.7 microM and 8.9 microM, respectively [14].
  • The non-imidazoline/non-imidazolidine alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, WB-4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxy-phenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride), yohimbine and rauwolscine, showed suppressive effects on Y-26763-induced K+ currents (IC50 203 microM, 813 microM and 832 microM, respectively) [10].

Gene context of Y 26763

  • This required the presence of hydrolysable nucleotides and appeared to be mediated by interaction of Y-26763 with SUR1 since: (a) tolbutamide was able to reverse the actions of Y-26763 and (b) Y-26763 failed to activate Kir6.2DeltaC26 in the absence of SUR1 [16].
  • The results clearly demonstrate that Y-26763 protects the myocardium from ischemic injury by opening KATP channels [1].
  • K+ currents induced by the K+ channel opener Y-26763 were potentiated by ANF (0.5-50 nM) in a concentration-dependent manner [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Y 26763

  • The present study describes the protective effects of the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener Y-26763 ((-)-(3S,4R-4-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxyamino)-6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl -2H-1-benzopyran-3-ol), on a model of reversible ischemia/reperfusion injury ('stunned' myocardium) [13].
  • Y-26763 did not affect CBF before or after occlusion compared with CBF values of the control group [2].


  1. Y-26763 protects the working rat myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury through opening of KATP channels. Rahman, F., Kato, A., Kawahara, K., Nakajima, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. An ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator reduces infarct volume in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Takaba, H., Nagao, T., Yao, H., Kitazono, T., Ibayashi, S., Fujishima, M. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Calcitonin gene-related peptide affords gastric mucosal protection by activating potassium channel in Wistar rat. Doi, K., Nagao, T., Kawakubo, K., Ibayashi, S., Aoyagi, K., Yano, Y., Yamamoto, C., Kanamoto, K., Iida, M., Sadoshima, S., Fujishima, M. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered cerebrovascular response to a potassium channel opener in hypertensive rats. Takaba, H., Nagao, T., Ibayashi, S., Kitazono, T., Fujii, K., Fujishima, M. Hypertension (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Chronic administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor restores functional and morphological changes of the basilar artery during chronic hypertension. Kitayama, J., Kitazono, T., Ooboshi, H., Ago, T., Ohgami, T., Fujishima, M., Ibayashi, S. J. Hypertens. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Correlation between spontaneous electrical, calcium and mechanical activity in detrusor smooth muscle of the guinea-pig bladder. Hashitani, H., Brading, A.F., Suzuki, H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Antiarrhythmic drugs, clofilium and cibenzoline are potent inhibitors of glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents in Xenopus oocytes. Sakuta, H., Okamoto, K., Watanabe, Y. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of a newly synthesized K+ channel opener, Y-26763, on noradrenaline-induced Ca2+ mobilization in smooth muscle of the rabbit mesenteric artery. Itoh, T., Ito, S., Shafiq, J., Suzuki, H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacokinetics and safety of a novel, long-acting, prodrug-type potassium channel opener, Y-27152, in healthy volunteers. Uematsu, T., Kosuge, K., Hirosawa, S., Kadobe, Y., Hibi, T., Nakashima, M. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition by imidazoline and imidazolidine derivatives of glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents in Xenopus oocytes. Sakuta, H., Okamoto, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of Y-26763, a novel K-channel opener, on electrical responses of smooth muscles in the guinea pig bladder. Hashitani, H., Suzuki, H., Kumazawa, J. J. Urol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of membrane hyperpolarization induced by a K+ channel opener on histamine-induced Ca2+ mobilization in rabbit arterial smooth muscle. Watanabe, Y., Suzuki, A., Suzuki, H., Itoh, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Y-26763 protects the canine heart from a stunning injury through opening of the KATP channels. Fukunari, A., Miyai, H., Shinagawa, K., Kawahara, K., Nakajima, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of Ca2+ channel antagonists and their isomers on glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. Sakuta, H., Okamoto, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of local anesthetics and related drugs on endogenous glibenclamide-sensitive K+ channels in Xenopus oocytes. Yoneda, I., Sakuta, H., Okamoto, K., Watanabe, Y. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Y-26763: ATP-sensitive K+ channel activation and the inhibition of insulin release from human pancreatic beta-cells. Cosgrove, K.E., Straub, S.G., Barnes, P.D., Chapman, J., Sharp, G.W., Dunne, M.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Atrial natriuretic factor potentiates glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents via the activation of receptor guanylate cyclase in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. Sakuta, H., Okamoto, K., Tandai, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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