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Gene Review

Rho  -  rhodopsin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Rhodopsin
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Disease relevance of Rho

  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Rho proteins with Clostridium difficile toxin B or inhibition of Rho prenylation with GGTI attenuated PTH(1-34)- and PTH(3-34)-stimulated translocation of endogenous PKCalpha and IL-6 promoter activity [1].
  • Extremely prolonged survival of phosphorylated forms of Rho may contribute to persistent misregulation of phototransduction processes in retinal degeneration in RCS rat [2].
  • The heterozygous P23H transgenic rat is a model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, in which a mutation in the rhodopsin gene leads to a rapid loss of rods and a more protracted loss of cones [3].
  • Y-27632 consistently suppresses Rho-induced, p160ROCK-mediated formation of stress fibres in cultured cells and dramatically corrects hypertension in several hypertensive rat models [4].
  • Using a binding assay to measure Rho activity, we detected increased levels of GTP Rho in PC12 and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell lysates after Nogo-66 stimulation [5].

Psychiatry related information on Rho


High impact information on Rho

  • Using pharmacologic antagonism (Y-27632, ref. 13, 18), we examined the role of Rho-kinase in cavernosal tone, based on the hypothesis that antagonism of Rho-kinase results in increased corpus cavernosum pressure, initiating the erectile response independently of nitric oxide [6].
  • The calcium-sensitizing rho-A/Rho-kinase pathway may play a synergistic role in cavernosal vasoconstriction to maintain penile flaccidity [6].
  • Antagonism of Rho-kinase stimulates rat penile erection via a nitric oxide-independent pathway [6].
  • Transfection of MM1 cells with cDNA encoding a dominant active mutant of ROCK conferred invasive activity independently of serum and Rho [9].
  • Cultured rat MM1 hepatoma cells migrate through a mesothelial cell monolayer in vitro in a serum-dependent, Rho-mediated manners [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rho


Biological context of Rho

  • Our results highlight a novel role for Rho GTPases in mediating the regulatory effects of GPCRs on STAT-dependent gene expression [15].
  • In vitro studies demonstrated decreased levels of both Rho phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions in RCS retinas [2].
  • Prolonged survival of the phosphorylated form of rhodopsin during dark adaptation of Royal College Surgeons rat [2].
  • These results indicate that thrombin activates Rho in RASMCs and establish Rho as a critical mediator of thrombin receptor effects on DNA synthesis and cell migration in these cells [16].
  • Transient cotransfection of 293T cells with expression plasmids for p160ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing kinase) and v-Crk, but not SH2 or SH3 mutants of v-Crk, results in hyperactivation of p160ROCK [17].

Anatomical context of Rho


Associations of Rho with chemical compounds

  • The Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 attenuated PTH(1-34)- and PTH(3-34)-stimulated PKCalpha translocation and IL-6 promoter activation [1].
  • The C3 exoenzyme, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, fully inhibited both thrombin-stimulated proliferation and migration but had no effect on inositol phosphate accumulation [16].
  • Moreover, the level of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate is increased in v-CrkPC12 cells compared to the levels in mutant v-Crk-expressing cells or wild-type cells, consistent with PI(4)P5 kinase being a downstream target for Rho [17].
  • Thrombin and SFLLRNP, but not phenylephrine, also increased membrane-associated Rho in intact RASMCs, consistent with selective activation of Rho by thrombin [16].
  • Analysis of Rho-family GAP domain sequences for conserved arginine residues that might contribute to accelerate GTP hydrolysis revealed a single conserved arginine residue [19].

Physical interactions of Rho

  • Alternatively, astrocytes were transfected with an expression vector encoding fusion proteins of enhanced green fluorescent protein with either the Rho-binding domain of Rhotekin, which blocks RhoA function, or the dominant-negative N19RhoA mutant [20].
  • We found that p75 can directly bind the GTPases Ras and Rho and that the unstimulated p75 inactivates total cellular Ras through a differential influence on the dissociation of GDP and GTP from Ras and an exchange of bound Ras.GDP for free Ras.GTP [21].
  • They become activated by interaction with Rho-type small GTP-binding proteins Rac and Cdc42 in the GTP-bound conformation, thereby relieving the inhibition of the regulatory domain (RD) on the catalytic domain (CD) [22].
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate CCKA receptor activation causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(Cas) through PLC-dependent and -independent mechanisms that require the participation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho and the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, but not the microtubule network [23].
  • Suppression of the whole protein or expression of a mutant form lacking the Rho-binding activity results in dispersion of the Golgi apparatus [24].

Enzymatic interactions of Rho

  • Here, we report that the collapsing response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is phosphorylated by a Rho-kinase-dependent mechanism downstream of MAG or Nogo-66 [25].

Regulatory relationships of Rho

  • Glucosamine treatment was shown to activate Rho [26].
  • In addition, stimulation of EP3 receptors inhibited the AVP-induced Rho inactivation and the AVP-induced F-actin depolymerization [27].
  • Additionally, JNK activation but not ERK activation was inhibited by the expression of C3 exoenzyme that inactivates small GTPase Rho [28].
  • Actin cytoskeletal dynamics and Rho signaling are involved in regulation of cytokine-induced iNOS expression in BSMC [29].
  • CONCLUSION: ET-1 induced contraction and migration of PSCs through ET receptors and activation of Rho-Rho kinase [30].

Other interactions of Rho

  • Rho and Rho kinase are involved in parathyroid hormone-stimulated protein kinase C alpha translocation and IL-6 promoter activity in osteoblastic cells [1].
  • The effect of ROS on cell morphology and motility probably results from modulation of activity of Rac1, Rho, and cofilin proteins playing a key role in regulation of actin dynamics [31].
  • In addition, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160ROCK/Rho kinase, decreased thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis and migration [16].
  • Thus, both Rho GTPase and calcium/calmodulin contribute to the control of cortical F-actin disassembly [32].
  • A yeast two-hybrid analysis using the coiled-coil domain of neurabin revealed an interaction with Lfc, a Rho GEF [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rho


  1. Rho and Rho kinase are involved in parathyroid hormone-stimulated protein kinase C alpha translocation and IL-6 promoter activity in osteoblastic cells. Radeff, J.M., Nagy, Z., Stern, P.H. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Prolonged survival of the phosphorylated form of rhodopsin during dark adaptation of Royal College Surgeons rat. Ohguro, H., Ohguro, I., Mamiya, K., Maeda, T., Nakazawa, M. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhanced cone dysfunction in rats homozygous for the P23H rhodopsin mutation. Pinilla, I., Lund, R.D., Sauvé, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcium sensitization of smooth muscle mediated by a Rho-associated protein kinase in hypertension. Uehata, M., Ishizaki, T., Satoh, H., Ono, T., Kawahara, T., Morishita, T., Tamakawa, H., Yamagami, K., Inui, J., Maekawa, M., Narumiya, S. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Rho kinase inhibition enhances axonal regeneration in the injured CNS. Fournier, A.E., Takizawa, B.T., Strittmatter, S.M. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Antagonism of Rho-kinase stimulates rat penile erection via a nitric oxide-independent pathway. Chitaley, K., Wingard, C.J., Clinton Webb, R., Branam, H., Stopper, V.S., Lewis, R.W., Mills, T.M. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Rho-kinase-mediated Ca2+-independent contraction in rat embryo fibroblasts. Emmert, D.A., Fee, J.A., Goeckeler, Z.M., Grojean, J.M., Wakatsuki, T., Elson, E.L., Herring, B.P., Gallagher, P.J., Wysolmerski, R.B. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. RhoA/Rho kinase and nitric oxide modulate the agonist-induced pulmonary artery diameter response time. Boer, C., van der Linden, P.J., Scheffer, G.J., Westerhof, N., de Lange, J.J., Sipkema, P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. An essential part for Rho-associated kinase in the transcellular invasion of tumor cells. Itoh, K., Yoshioka, K., Akedo, H., Uehata, M., Ishizaki, T., Narumiya, S. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Y-27632, an inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase, suppresses tumor cell invasion via regulation of focal adhesion and focal adhesion kinase. Imamura, F., Mukai, M., Ayaki, M., Akedo, H. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors prevent high glucose-induced proliferation of mesangial cells via modulation of Rho GTPase/ p21 signaling pathway: Implications for diabetic nephropathy. Danesh, F.R., Sadeghi, M.M., Amro, N., Philips, C., Zeng, L., Lin, S., Sahai, A., Kanwar, Y.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. RhoA/Rho-kinase suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the penis: a mechanism for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction. Bivalacqua, T.J., Champion, H.C., Usta, M.F., Cellek, S., Chitaley, K., Webb, R.C., Lewis, R.L., Mills, T.M., Hellstrom, W.J., Kadowitz, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Mapping of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins by GTP overlay following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Huber, L.A., Ullrich, O., Takai, Y., Lütcke, A., Dupree, P., Olkkonen, V., Virta, H., de Hoop, M.J., Alexandrov, K., Peter, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Involvement of Rho-kinase in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Yamakawa, T., Tanaka, S., Numaguchi, K., Yamakawa, Y., Motley, E.D., Ichihara, S., Inagami, T. Hypertension (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Rho family GTPases are required for activation of Jak/STAT signaling by G protein-coupled receptors. Pelletier, S., Duhamel, F., Coulombe, P., Popoff, M.R., Meloche, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Rho and Rho kinase mediate thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and migration. Seasholtz, T.M., Majumdar, M., Kaplan, D.D., Brown, J.H. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of Rho-dependent cell spreading and focal adhesion biogenesis by the v-Crk adaptor protein. Altun-Gultekin, Z.F., Chandriani, S., Bougeret, C., Ishizaki, T., Narumiya, S., de Graaf, P., Van Bergen en Henegouwen, P., Hanafusa, H., Wagner, J.A., Birge, R.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. TrkB binds and tyrosine-phosphorylates Tiam1, leading to activation of Rac1 and induction of changes in cellular morphology. Miyamoto, Y., Yamauchi, J., Tanoue, A., Wu, C., Mobley, W.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The rat myosin myr 5 is a GTPase-activating protein for Rho in vivo: essential role of arginine 1695. Müller, R.T., Honnert, U., Reinhard, J., Bähler, M. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Aggregation of integrins and RhoA activation are required for Thy-1-induced morphological changes in astrocytes. Avalos, A.M., Arthur, W.T., Schneider, P., Quest, A.F., Burridge, K., Leyton, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Inactivation and activation of Ras by the neurotrophin receptor p75. Blöchl, A., Blumenstein, L., Ahmadian, M.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Conformational switch and role of phosphorylation in PAK activation. Buchwald, G., Hostinova, E., Rudolph, M.G., Kraemer, A., Sickmann, A., Meyer, H.E., Scheffzek, K., Wittinghofer, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. CCKA receptor activation stimulates p130(Cas) tyrosine phosphorylation, translocation, and association with Crk in rat pancreatic acinar cells. Ferris, H.A., Tapia, J.A., García, L.J., Jensen, R.T. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Citron-N is a neuronal Rho-associated protein involved in Golgi organization through actin cytoskeleton regulation. Camera, P., da Silva, J.S., Griffiths, G., Giuffrida, M.G., Ferrara, L., Schubert, V., Imarisio, S., Silengo, L., Dotti, C.G., Di Cunto, F. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibits microtubule assembly by a Rho-kinase-dependent mechanism. Mimura, F., Yamagishi, S., Arimura, N., Fujitani, M., Kubo, T., Kaibuchi, K., Yamashita, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. High glucose-induced upregulation of osteopontin is mediated via Rho/Rho kinase pathway in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Kawamura, H., Yokote, K., Asaumi, S., Kobayashi, K., Fujimoto, M., Maezawa, Y., Saito, Y., Mori, S. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The prostaglandin E2 analogue sulprostone antagonizes vasopressin-induced antidiuresis through activation of Rho. Tamma, G., Wiesner, B., Furkert, J., Hahm, D., Oksche, A., Schaefer, M., Valenti, G., Rosenthal, W., Klussmann, E. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential requirement of G alpha12, G alpha13, G alphaq, and G beta gamma for endothelin-1-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Arai, K., Maruyama, Y., Nishida, M., Tanabe, S., Takagahara, S., Kozasa, T., Mori, Y., Nagao, T., Kurose, H. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenotypic modulation of cultured bladder smooth muscle cells and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Johansson, R., Persson, K. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Endothelin-1 stimulates contraction and migration of rat pancreatic stellate cells. Masamune, A., Satoh, M., Kikuta, K., Suzuki, N., Shimosegawa, T. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. ROS up-regulation mediates Ras-induced changes of cell morphology and motility. Alexandrova, A.Y., Kopnin, P.B., Vasiliev, J.M., Kopnin, B.P. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Rho controls cortical F-actin disassembly in addition to, but independently of, secretion in mast cells. Sullivan, R., Price, L.S., Koffer, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. The Rho-specific GEF Lfc interacts with neurabin and spinophilin to regulate dendritic spine morphology. Ryan, X.P., Alldritt, J., Svenningsson, P., Allen, P.B., Wu, G.Y., Nairn, A.C., Greengard, P. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Flavonoids influence monocytic GTPase activity and are protective in experimental allergic encephalitis. Hendriks, J.J., Alblas, J., van der Pol, S.M., van Tol, E.A., Dijkstra, C.D., de Vries, H.E. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected by toxin A from Clostridium difficile. Just, I., Selzer, J., von Eichel-Streiber, C., Aktories, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Defective RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling contributes to vascular hypocontractility and vasodilation in cirrhotic rats. Hennenberg, M., Biecker, E., Trebicka, J., Jochem, K., Zhou, Q., Schmidt, M., Jakobs, K.H., Sauerbruch, T., Heller, J. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. The golgi-associated COPI-coated buds and vesicles contain beta/gamma -actin. Valderrama, F., Luna, A., Babía, T., Martinez-Menárguez, J.A., Ballesta, J., Barth, H., Chaponnier, C., Renau-Piqueras, J., Egea, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
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