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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NUTTP     2-amino-4-aminocarbonyl- butanoate

Synonyms: gln(-), CHEBI:32678, glutamine anion, 2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoate
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Disease relevance of proglumide


High impact information on proglumide

  • In K. pneumoniae, the ntr (gln) genes concerned with regulation of nitrogen metabolism control expression of the nifLA operon whose products act as repressor (nifL) and activator (nifA) of the seven other nif transcriptional units [5].
  • The gln-gamma gene, encoding the gamma subunit of glutamine synthetase in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is strongly induced during nodule development [6].
  • The gln-gamma gene, which specifies the gamma subunit of glutamine synthetase in Phaseolus vulgaris L., has been isolated and the regulatory properties of its promoter region analyzed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants [7].
  • A 2-kilobase fragment from the 5'-flanking region of gln-gamma conferred a strongly nodule-enhanced pattern of expression on the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene [7].
  • Derepression of the R. meliloti nifH::lacZ fusion, but not the K. pneumoniae nifH::lacZ fusion, can be mediated by the glnG (ntrC) gene product, suggesting that the gln regulatory genes might directly regulate the symbiotic nitrogen fixation genes in Rhizobium [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of proglumide


Biological context of proglumide

  • The differential translation (glu/gln) of UAR codons, the monophyly of the Oligohymenophorea, and the common evolutionary origin of glutamate and glutamine suggest that deviant genetic codes of present-day oligohymenophoreans could have the same origin [10].
  • Nucleotide sequence of the structural genes for the mitochondrial cys, lys, gln and leu-tRNAs from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis K8 [11].
  • In HLMC preparations expressing beta2-adrenoceptors with gln (wild-type) or glu (mutant) at position 27, desensitization was 65 +/- 5% (n = 25) or 28 +/- 7% (n = 17), respectively, whereas the desensitization was 61 +/- 5% (n = 30) for heterozygotes at this position [12].
  • The Drosophila gene has three introns: one immediately following the initiation codon, one between amino acids 26 and 27 (gln and phe), and one between amino acids 64 and 65 (glu and val) [13].
  • Complementation analysis was performed with lambda gln derivatives containing point mutations which conferred a Gln- or Reg- phenotype [14].

Anatomical context of proglumide

  • Coupled to a role in ammoniagenesis the brush border enzyme appears to play a role in the reabsorption of filtered gln [15].
  • In murine hybridomas, a higher concentration of gly-gln is required to obtain comparable cell growth to ala-gln or gln-based cultures [16].

Gene context of proglumide

  • Both tumors were found to be mutated in the 61st N-ras codon from gln to his [17].
  • All three gln regulatory genes were constitutively expressed at a low level, i.e. their expression was independent of the nitrogen status and the RNA polymerase sigma factor sigma 54 [18].
  • Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli deamidates a gln residue in the conserved G-3 domain of the rho family and preferentially inhibits the GTPase activity of RhoA and rac1 [19].
  • The secondary structures of the cAMP receptor protein (CRP), a complex of CRP and cAMP, and a cAMP-independent receptor protein mutant (CRP*141 gln) were examined by using Raman spectroscopy [20].
  • Since glnA transcription was restored in the Gln- mutants containing the complementing DNA, the gln mutations appear to lie in one or more closely linked genes that are required for glnA transcription in S. coelicolor [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of proglumide


  1. Ammonia-regulated expression of a soybean gene encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. Miao, G.H., Hirel, B., Marsolier, M.C., Ridge, R.W., Verma, D.P. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Activation of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhizobium meliloti nitrogenase promoters by gln (ntr) regulatory proteins. Sundaresan, V., Ow, D.W., Ausubel, F.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Two new sickle cell syndromes: HbS, Hb Camden, and alpha-thalassemia; and HbS in combination with Hb Tacoma. Honig, G.R., Mason, R.G., Shamsuddin, M., Vida, L.N., Rao, K.R., Patel, A.R. Blood (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Surface structure of virions budding from L1210(V) gln- mouse leukemia cells. Demsey, A., Calvelli, T.A., Kawka, D., Stackpole, C.W., Sarkar, N.H. Virology (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Activation of nif gene expression in Azotobacter by the nifA gene product of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Kennedy, C., Robson, R.L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Nuclear factors interact with conserved A/T-rich elements upstream of a nodule-enhanced glutamine synthetase gene from French bean. Forde, B.G., Freeman, J., Oliver, J.E., Pineda, M. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Two glutamine synthetase genes from Phaseolus vulgaris L. display contrasting developmental and spatial patterns of expression in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. Forde, B.G., Day, H.M., Turton, J.F., Shen, W.J., Cullimore, J.V., Oliver, J.E. Plant Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Site-directed mutagenic replacement of glu-461 with gln in beta-galactosidase (E. coli): evidence that glu-461 is important for activity. Bader, D.E., Ring, M., Huber, R.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Hb Camden and Hb Hope found during routine testing. Hubbard, M., Wilson, J.B., Wrightstone, R.N., Efremov, G.D., Huisman, T.H. Acta Haematol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. A new noncanonical nuclear genetic code: translation of UAA into glutamate. Sánchez-Silva, R., Villalobo, E., Morin, L., Torres, A. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of the structural genes for the mitochondrial cys, lys, gln and leu-tRNAs from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis K8. Hardy, C.M., Clark-Walker, G.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of genetic polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenoceptor on desensitization in human lung mast cells. Chong, L.K., Chowdry, J., Ghahramani, P., Peachell, P.T. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Conservation of intron position indicates separation of major and variant H2As is an early event in the evolution of eukaryotes. van Daal, A., White, E.M., Elgin, S.C., Gorovsky, M.A. J. Mol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Fine-structure deletion map and complementation analysis of the glnA-glnL-glnG region in Escherichia coli. MacNeil, T., MacNeil, D., Tyler, B. J. Bacteriol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Function of renal gamma-glutamyltransferase: significance of glutathione and glutamine interactions. Welbourne, T.C., Dass, P.D. Life Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Adaptation of mammalian cells to non-ammoniagenic media. Butler, M., Christie, A. Cytotechnology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Activated oncogenes in human skin tumors from a repair-deficient syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum. Suarez, H.G., Daya-Grosjean, L., Schlaifer, D., Nardeux, P., Renault, G., Bos, J.L., Sarasin, A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. The genes of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation cascade are not regulated by nitrogen in Escherichia coli. van Heeswijk, W.C., Rabenberg, M., Westerhoff, H.V., Kahn, D. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli deamidates a gln residue in the conserved G-3 domain of the rho family and preferentially inhibits the GTPase activity of RhoA and rac1. Sugai, M., Hatazaki, K., Mogami, A., Ohta, H., Pérès, S.Y., Hérault, F., Horiguchi, Y., Masuda, M., Ueno, Y., Komatsuzawa, H., Suginaka, H., Oswald, E. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and a cAMP-independent form of CRP by Raman spectroscopy and DNA binding. Tan, G.S., Kelly, P., Kim, J., Wartell, R.M. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification and cloning of the glnR locus, which is required for transcription of the glnA gene in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Wray, L.V., Atkinson, M.R., Fisher, S.H. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Improved glutaminate-starch-penicillin agar for the isolation and enumeration of Aeromonas hydrophila from seawater by membrane filtration. Papapetropoulou, M., Rodopoulou, G., Giannoulaki, E. Pathol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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