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Chemical Compound Review

Athenon     2-aminoethanoate

Synonyms: glycinate, aminoacetate, glycine anion, AGN-PC-0D6IHQ, gly(-), ...
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Disease relevance of aminoacetic acid

  • The ZGM was similarly identified in saline or zinc glycinate extracts of 11 of 23 carcinomas of the colon [1].
  • In an attempt to identify new tumor markers in human colon carcinoma, we produced antisera in rabbits tolerant to normal human tissue antigens and immunized with zinc glycinate-treated extracts of liver metastases from a colon carcinoma [1].
  • The toxicity profile and the pharmacokinetics of aphidicolin glycinate, a water-soluble analogue of aphidicolin, have been evaluated in two consecutive phase I clinical studies [2].
  • We have altered the groEL gene (encoding the essential Escherichia coli HSP60 chaperonin) so that the protein produced lacks its 16 final (including nine gly, and five met) residues [3].
  • Comparing the schizophrenia patients with and without TD, genotypes containing the gly allele (DRD3ser-gly and DRD3gly-gly genotypes combined) were significantly associated with dyskinesia (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.18-5.59, P = 0.02) [4].

High impact information on aminoacetic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of aminoacetic acid


Biological context of aminoacetic acid

  • The region also includes three genes (gly, nss and gtf) that encode proteins likely to function in carbohydrate metabolism, and four genes (orf1-4) that encode proteins of unknown function [13].
  • 13 of 64 (20%) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases had ras gene mutations mostly involving N-ras codon 12/13, G-A (gly-asp) transitions [14].
  • Comparison of sequences of the Smu1 gene from wild-type and mutant cells revealed that the mutant phenotype is caused by a G-to-A transition that yields a gly-to-arg substitution at position 489 in hamster Smu1 [15].
  • Donor CD31 (val/asn/gly) haplotype was associated with acute GVHD (P=0.004, odds ratio 7.5) [16].
  • Thus, these data indicate that a single gly-to-ala mutation in the fusion peptide domain, although not affecting the final extent of fusion, significantly increased the rate of fusion [17].

Anatomical context of aminoacetic acid


Associations of aminoacetic acid with other chemical compounds

  • Incubation of HAECs with 100 microg/ml of gly-ox-HDL for 48 h showed apoptotic features, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and concentration and fragmentation of the nucleus, and the degree of apoptosis was dose-dependent on the glucose used in the preparation of gly-ox-HDL [23].
  • Since proline does not utilize the broad-spectrum, neutral system, its symport appears to be exclusively through the pro, gly: K+ symporter [24].
  • In addition, three substitutions are reported for key residues in the coenzyme binding site: 251, gln/ser; 260, gly/asn; and 261, gly/asn, which may contribute to the weak coenzyme binding properties reported for human class IV ADH [25].
  • However, the serine substitution at gly 352 is associated with a more severe phenotype then is the serine substitution at gly 832 [26].
  • A series of low molecular weight organic gelator (LMOG) gel systems sensitive to alkaline/acidic stimuli was established by employing amino acid derivatives of cholesterol as "latent" gelators, which are cholesteryl glycinate (1), cholesteryl L-alaninate, cholesteryl D-alaninate, cholesteryl L-phenyl alaninate, and cholesteryl D-phenyl alaninate [27].

Gene context of aminoacetic acid

  • The MS gly/gly polymorphism was also not significantly associated with risk of colorectal adenomas (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.26-1.70) [28].
  • However, similar to the interaction observed for the MTHFR polymorphism among men who consumed less than 1 alcoholic drink/day, those with the gly/gly genotype had a lower risk of colorectal cancer with an odds ratio of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.09-0.81) compared with those with the asp/asp genotype [29].
  • RESULTS: A higher, but not significant, frequency of DRD3 ser/gly heterozygotes was observed in the tardive dyskinesia group (0.52 versus 0.33, chi2=5, degrees of freedom=2, P=0.08) [30].
  • As asp1-3, gtf and orf4, but not gly and nss, are conserved in the accessory sec loci of several staphylococcal and streptococcal species, these genes may also have crucial roles in the expression and export of GspB homologues in the other Gram-positive bacteria [13].
  • Moreover, the current findings of MT-0 expression at the mRNA level in gly A(+) RBC precursors of hCB has added one more member in the list of cells/organs like fetal liver, human monocytes, non-neoplastic tissues of adenocarcinoma etc., in which the expression of the human fetal form of MT, i.e. MT-0, has also been reported [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aminoacetic acid

  • Tissue localization of zinc glycinate marker and carcinoembryonic antigen by immunofluorescence. I. Preparation of antisera against the zinc glycinate marker [32].
  • Gel retardation assays involving the purified QscR have demonstrated the specific binding of QscR to the DNA regions upstream of sga, mtkA, gly, and qscR [33].
  • When purified by affinity chromatography, both the hN901-RTB and hN901-RTB delta gly products were found to have an apparent molecular mass of M(r) = 210,000 and to be composed of two hN901 antibody heavy chains each fused to a full-length copy of RTB and two hN901 antibody light chains [34].
  • Another metabolite identified by mass spectrometry and quantified by HPLC in some tissues and urine was pCOOH-DMT glycinate [35].
  • Prolonged perfusion of a cell with the asp/gly/Pb(2+)-containing external solution resulted in an irreversible decrease of the asp/gly current, whereas the amplitude of the asp/gly/Pb2+ response did not change over the duration of an experiment [36].


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  2. Phase I and clinical pharmacological evaluation of aphidicolin glycinate. Sessa, C., Zucchetti, M., Davoli, E., Califano, R., Cavalli, F., Frustaci, S., Gumbrell, L., Sulkes, A., Winograd, B., D'Incalci, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. The strongly conserved carboxyl-terminus glycine-methionine motif of the Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin is dispensable. McLennan, N.F., Girshovich, A.S., Lissin, N.M., Charters, Y., Masters, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Genotypic association between the dopamine D3 receptor and tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia. Segman, R., Neeman, T., Heresco-Levy, U., Finkel, B., Karagichev, L., Schlafman, M., Dorevitch, A., Yakir, A., Lerner, A., Shelevoy, A., Lerer, B. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Tissue localization of zinc glycinate marker and carcinoembryonic antigen by immunofluorescence. II. Immunofluorescence microscopy. Doos, W.G., Saravis, C.A., Pusztaszeri, G., Burke, B., Oh, S.K., Zamcheck, N., Gottlieb, L.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Hyperlipidemia and pancreatitis during pregnancy in two sisters with a mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Keilson, L.M., Vary, C.P., Sprecher, D.L., Renfrew, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of strenuous exercise on platelet activation state and reactivity. Kestin, A.S., Ellis, P.A., Barnard, M.R., Errichetti, A., Rosner, B.A., Michelson, A.D. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Amino acid residue penultimate to the amino-terminal gly residue strongly affects two cotranslational protein modifications, N-myristoylation and N-acetylation. Utsumi, T., Sato, M., Nakano, K., Takemura, D., Iwata, H., Ishisaka, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. ras and p53 genes in male breast cancer. Dawson, P.J., Schroer, K.R., Wolman, S.R. Mod. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple gene loci for a single species of glycine transfer ribonucleic acid. Fleck, E.W., Carbon, J. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis by local injection of thiamphenicol into prostate. Plomp, T.A., Baert, L., Maes, R.A. Urology (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Reversal of drug resistance in P-glycoprotein-expressing T-cell acute lymphoblastic CEM leukemia cells by copper N-(2-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate and oxalyl bis (N-phenyl) hydroxamic acid. Majumder, S., Dutta, P., Mukherjee, P., Datta, E.R., Efferth, T., Bhattacharya, S., Choudhuri, S.K. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Genes in the accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii have three functionally distinct effects on the expression of the platelet-binding protein GspB. Takamatsu, D., Bensing, B.A., Sullam, P.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of ras gene mutations and methylation state in human leukemias. Browett, P.J., Norton, J.D. Oncogene (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. A temperature-sensitive mutation in the WD repeat-containing protein Smu1 is related to maintenance of chromosome integrity. Sugaya, K., Hongo, E., Tsuji, H. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Donor CD31 genotype impacts on transplant complications after human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Cavanagh, G., Chapman, C.E., Carter, V., Dickinson, A.M., Middleton, P.G. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. A glycine to alanine substitution in the paramyxovirus SV5 fusion peptide increases the initial rate of fusion. Bagai, S., Lamb, R.A. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Mimosine targets serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Lin, H.B., Falchetto, R., Mosca, P.J., Shabanowitz, J., Hunt, D.F., Hamlin, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Glycine transport in human erythrocytes. Ellory, J.C., Jones, S.E., Young, J.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Amino acid sequences which promote and prevent the binding and membrane insertion of surface-active peptides: comparison of melittin and promelittin. Wolfe, C., Cladera, J., O'Shea, P. Mol. Membr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Resistance to the new anti-cancer phospholipid ilmofosine (BM 41 440). Hofmann, J., Utz, I., Spitaler, M., Hofer, S., Rybczynska, M., Beck, W.T., Herrmann, D.B., Grunicke, H. Br. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Glycine and Na+ transport in preimplantation mouse embryos. Hobbs, J.G., Kaye, P.L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Glycated high-density lipoprotein induces apoptosis of endothelial cells via a mitochondrial dysfunction. Matsunaga, T., Iguchi, K., Nakajima, T., Koyama, I., Miyazaki, T., Inoue, I., Kawai, S., Katayama, S., Hirano, K., Hokari, S., Komoda, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel proline, glycine: K+ symporter in midgut brush-border membrane vesicles from larval Manduca sexta. Bader, A.L., Parthasarathy, R., Harvey, W.R. J. Exp. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Human stomach class IV alcohol dehydrogenase: molecular genetic analysis. Cheung, B., Anderson, J.K., Holmes, R.S., Beacham, I.R. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Moderately severe osteogenesis imperfecta associated with substitutions of serine for glycine in the alpha 1(I) chain of type I collagen. Marini, J.C., Lewis, M.B., Chen, K. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Amino acid derivatives of cholesterol as "latent" organogelators with hydrogen chloride as a protonation reagent. Li, Y., Liu, K., Liu, J., Peng, J., Feng, X., Fang, Y. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. A prospective study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase gene polymorphisms, and risk of colorectal adenoma. Chen, J., Giovannucci, E., Hankinson, S.E., Ma, J., Willett, W.C., Spiegelman, D., Kelsey, K.T., Hunter, D.J. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. A polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene: association with plasma folate, vitamin B12, homocyst(e)ine, and colorectal cancer risk. Ma, J., Stampfer, M.J., Christensen, B., Giovannucci, E., Hunter, D.J., Chen, J., Willett, W.C., Selhub, J., Hennekens, C.H., Gravel, R., Rozen, R. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Interaction between polymorphisms of the dopamine D3 receptor and manganese superoxide dismutase genes in susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia. Zhang, Z.J., Zhang, X.B., Hou, G., Yao, H., Reynolds, G.P. Psychiatr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Metallothionein biosynthesis in human RBC precursors. Rahman, M.T., Vandingenen, A., De Ley, M. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Tissue localization of zinc glycinate marker and carcinoembryonic antigen by immunofluorescence. I. Preparation of antisera against the zinc glycinate marker. Saravis, C.A., Oh, S.K., Pusztaszeri, G., Doos, W.G., Zamcheck, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. QscR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and CbbR homolog, is involved in regulation of the serine cycle genes in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Kalyuzhnaya, M.G., Lidstrom, M.E. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression and secretion of a recombinant ricin immunotoxin from murine myeloma cells. Krek, C.E., Ladino, C.A., Goldmacher, V.S., Blättler, W.A., Guild, B.C. Protein Eng. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of p-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) benzoic acid in M5076 sarcoma-bearing mice. Benfenati, E., Farina, P., Colombo, T., De Bellis, G., Capodiferro, M.V., D'Incalci, M. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Pb2+ modulates the NMDA-receptor-channel complex. Uteshev, V., Büsselberg, D., Haas, H.L. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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