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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Borrelia

  • The role of the host plasminogen activation system in transmission of and invasion by Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-borne spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, was investigated using plasminogen (Plg)-knockout mice [1].
  • We conducted a prospective trial in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 17 patients treated with penicillin for proven louse-borne relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis to evaluate the association of symptoms with plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukins 6, and 8 (IL-6 and -8) [2].
  • The temporal synthesis of the P21 protein of Borrelia burgdorferi and the development of the humoral response to this antigen was assessed in infected mice. p21 is a member of the ospE-F gene family and its protein, P21, has been shown to be expressed by B. burgdorferi within infected mice but not by spirochetes cultured in vitro [3].
  • Reversal by ceftriaxone of dilated cardiomyopathy Borrelia burgdorferi infection [4].
  • Tetracycline for borrelia encephalitis [5].

High impact information on Borrelia


Chemical compound and disease context of Borrelia


Biological context of Borrelia


Anatomical context of Borrelia


Gene context of Borrelia

  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor blockade reduces endotoxin and Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated IL-8 synthesis in human mononuclear cells [26].
  • We used these RNA assays and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for protein and demonstrated that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stimulated by Borrelia burgdorferi sonicate, produced CXCL13 and IgG [27].
  • Cutting edge: inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 [28].
  • The role of CD14 in signaling mediated by outer membrane lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi [29].
  • Spontaneous and Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their interleukin-4 (IL-4), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and NO production were measured in 36 patients with second- or third-stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 11 control subjects [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Borrelia


  1. Plasminogen is required for efficient dissemination of B. burgdorferi in ticks and for enhancement of spirochetemia in mice. Coleman, J.L., Gebbia, J.A., Piesman, J., Degen, J.L., Bugge, T.H., Benach, J.L. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of plasma tumor necrosis factor, interleukins 6, and 8 during the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction of relapsing fever. Negussie, Y., Remick, D.G., DeForge, L.E., Kunkel, S.L., Eynon, A., Griffin, G.E. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Temporal pattern of Borrelia burgdorferi p21 expression in ticks and the mammalian host. Das, S., Barthold, S.W., Giles, S.S., Montgomery, R.R., Telford, S.R., Fikrig, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversal by ceftriaxone of dilated cardiomyopathy Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Gasser, R., Dusleag, J., Reisinger, E., Stauber, R., Feigl, B., Pongratz, S., Klein, W., Furian, C., Pierer, K. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Tetracycline for borrelia encephalitis. Bryceson, A. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the myocardium of a patient with longstanding cardiomyopathy. Stanek, G., Klein, J., Bittner, R., Glogar, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Hyporesponsiveness to vaccination with Borrelia burgdorferi OspA in humans and in TLR1- and TLR2-deficient mice. Alexopoulou, L., Thomas, V., Schnare, M., Lobet, Y., Anguita, J., Schoen, R.T., Medzhitov, R., Fikrig, E., Flavell, R.A. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Borrelia burgdorferi P35 and P37 proteins, expressed in vivo, elicit protective immunity. Fikrig, E., Barthold, S.W., Sun, W., Feng, W., Telford, S.R., Flavell, R.A. Immunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Variability of a bacterial surface protein and disease expression in a possible mouse model of systemic Lyme borreliosis. Cadavid, D., Thomas, D.D., Crawley, R., Barbour, A.G. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The plasminogen activation system enhances brain and heart invasion in murine relapsing fever borreliosis. Gebbia, J.A., Monco, J.C., Degen, J.L., Bugge, T.H., Benach, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Nonorthologous replacement of lysyl-tRNA synthetase prevents addition of lysine analogues to the genetic code. Jester, B.C., Levengood, J.D., Roy, H., Ibba, M., Devine, K.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. CD28 expression by mouse mast cells is modulated by lipopolysaccharide and outer surface protein A lipoprotein from Borrelia burgdorferi. Marietta, E.V., Weis, J.J., Weis, J.H. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. An immunodominant conserved region within the variable domain of VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi. Liang, F.T., Alvarez, A.L., Gu, Y., Nowling, J.M., Ramamoorthy, R., Philipp, M.T. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Adherence of Borrelia burgdorferi. Identification of critical lysine residues in DbpA required for decorin binding. Brown, E.L., Guo, B.P., O'Neal, P., Höök, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Substance P augments Borrelia burgdorferi-induced prostaglandin E2 production by murine microglia. Rasley, A., Marriott, I., Halberstadt, C.R., Bost, K.L., Anguita, J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Live Borrelia burgdorferi preferentially activate interleukin-1 beta gene expression and protein synthesis over the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Miller, L.C., Isa, S., Vannier, E., Georgilis, K., Steere, A.C., Dinarello, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas: clinicopathologic features, classification, and prognostic factors in a large series of patients. Kodama, K., Massone, C., Chott, A., Metze, D., Kerl, H., Cerroni, L. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. Sohlenkamp, C., de Rudder, K.E., Rohrs, V., Lopez-Lara, I.M., Geiger, O. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. A bactericidal monoclonal antibody elicits a change in its antigen, OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi, that can be detected by limited proteolysis. Katona, L.I., Ayalew, S., Coleman, J.L., Benach, J.L. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. A plasmid-encoded nicotinamidase (PncA) is essential for infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a mammalian host. Purser, J.E., Lawrenz, M.B., Caimano, M.J., Howell, J.K., Radolf, J.D., Norris, S.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Pachner, A.R., Delaney, E. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of a T cell subset capable of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 secretion in patients with chronic Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Pohl-Koppe, A., Balashov, K.E., Steere, A.C., Logigian, E.L., Hafler, D.A. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by reverse line blot in the joints of Dutch patients with Lyme arthritis. van der Heijden, I.M., Wilbrink, B., Rijpkema, S.G., Schouls, L.M., Heymans, P.H., van Embden, J.D., Breedveld, F.C., Tak, P.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a candidate glycosaminoglycan-binding adhesin of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Parveen, N., Leong, J.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of osteopontin in murine Lyme arthritis and host defense against Borrelia burgdorferi. Potter, M.R., Rittling, S.R., Denhardt, D.T., Roper, R.J., Weis, J.H., Teuscher, C., Weis, J.J. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor blockade reduces endotoxin and Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated IL-8 synthesis in human mononuclear cells. Porat, R., Poutsiaka, D.D., Miller, L.C., Granowitz, E.V., Dinarello, C.A. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. The nervous system as ectopic germinal center: CXCL13 and IgG in lyme neuroborreliosis. Narayan, K., Dail, D., Li, L., Cadavid, D., Amrute, S., Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P., Pachner, A.R. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Cutting edge: inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. Hirschfeld, M., Kirschning, C.J., Schwandner, R., Wesche, H., Weis, J.H., Wooten, R.M., Weis, J.J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of CD14 in signaling mediated by outer membrane lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Wooten, R.M., Morrison, T.B., Weis, J.H., Wright, S.D., Thieringer, R., Weis, J.J. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Decreased interleukin-4 and increased gamma interferon production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Lyme borreliosis. Oksi, J., Savolainen, J., Pène, J., Bòusquet, J., Laippala, P., Viljanen, M.K. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. DNA microarray assessment of putative Borrelia burgdorferi lipoprotein genes. Liang, F.T., Nelson, F.K., Fikrig, E. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. The Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum-associated 41-kilodalton antigen (flagellin): molecular cloning, expression, and amplification of the gene. Wallich, R., Moter, S.E., Simon, M.M., Ebnet, K., Heiberger, A., Kramer, M.D. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Outer surface protein C gene sequence analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Japan. Fukunaga, M., Hamase, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Heterogeneity of BmpA (P39) among European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and influence of interspecies variability on serodiagnosis. Roessler, D., Hauser, U., Wilske, B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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