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Gene Review

ptsH  -  PTS system phosphohistidinoprotein-hexose...

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of ptsH


High impact information on ptsH

  • The phosphoryl groups are donated by the phosphocarrier protein HPr [6].
  • Promoter-reporter gene fusion studies identified two CRP.cAMP-dependent promoters (the previously identified P1 and another promoter, P0) upstream of ptsH [7].
  • Third, growth of the ptsH mutants on fructose relieved PTS-mediated repression; after growth on fructose, but not on lactate, the mutants could grow for several generations on non-PTS sugars [8].
  • Growth on other PTS sugars, besides glucose, also induces ptsH and ptsG expression, suggesting that the target of Mlc regulation is the PTS [9].
  • An open reading frame overlapping the main part of ptsH in the opposite sense was shown to be expressed in vivo, using protein fusions with beta-galactosidase [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of ptsH


Biological context of ptsH

  • In M. capricolum, ptsH and ptsI reside on 2 distinct operons at separate loci on the chromosome (Zhu PP, Reizer J, Reizer A, Peterkofsky A, 1993, J Biol Chem 268:26531-26540) [15].
  • 44 on the E. coli genome, was transferred by phage-mediated transduction to appropriate recipients that lack HPr (ptsH), or Enzyme IIman (ptsM), or neither [16].
  • Experiments indicated that the reversion of the ptsH phenotype was due to a titration of the Cra protein, which allowed the constitutive expression of the fructose operon [3].
  • As for E. coli, a B. subtilis ptsH null mutant is severely deficient in chemotaxis toward most PTS carbohydrates [17].
  • Upstream, the 264-bp open reading frame of the ptsH gene is flanked by a putative S. carnosus promoter structure and a putative ptsI gene downstream suggesting that ptsH gene is the first gene in the PTS operon of S. carnosus [18].

Associations of ptsH with chemical compounds

  • These mutations suppressed the defects in a ptsH mutant which lacks HPr, one of the enzymes of the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system [19].
  • The intracellular content of cyclic AMP in the ptsIH mutant was severely diminished, while the ptsH bacteria contain the same amounts of this nucleotide as the wild-type cells [12].
  • The new sampling method (essential dynamics sampling) was applied to the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr [20].


  1. The nucleotide sequence of ptsH gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Titgemeyer, F., Eisermann, R., Hengstenberg, W., Lengeler, J.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and investigation of the Escherichia coli mutant with the deletion in the ptsH gene. Bolshakova, T.N., Dobrynina, O.Y., Gershanovitch, V.N. FEBS Lett. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Suppression of the ptsH mutation in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium by a DNA fragment from Lactobacillus casei. Monedero, V., Postma, P.W., Pérez-Martínez, G. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of a ptsH homologue from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Butler, M.J., Deutscher, J., Postma, P.W., Wilson, T.J., Galinier, A., Bibb, M.J. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Overproduction and purification of the Mycoplasma capricolum phosphocarrier protein, HPr, of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Zhu, P.P., Lecchi, P., Pannell, L., Jaffe, H., Peterkofsky, A. Protein Expr. Purif. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations. Görke, B., Rak, B. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for two promoters upstream of the pts operon: regulation by the cAMP receptor protein regulatory complex. Fox, D.K., Presper, K.A., Adhya, S., Roseman, S., Garges, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Sugar transport. Properties of mutant bacteria defective in proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Simoni, R.D., Roseman, S., Saier, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of the phosphotransferase system both mediates and is mediated by Mlc regulation in Escherichia coli. Plumbridge, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of Bacillus subtilis: nucleotide sequence of ptsX, ptsH and the 5'-end of ptsI and evidence for a ptsHI operon. Gonzy-Tréboul, G., Zagorec, M., Rain-Guion, M.C., Steinmetz, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis prkA gene encoding a novel serine protein kinase. Fischer, C., Geourjon, C., Bourson, C., Deutscher, J. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of ptsI and ptsH mutations on initiation of transcription of the Escherichia coli lactose operon. Glesyna, M.L., Bolshakova, T.N., Gershanovitch, V.N. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification and characterization of the HPR protein of Pediococcus halophilus. Arai, M., Abe, K., Yamato, I. Biochem. Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequence and expression of the genes for HPr (ptsH) and enzyme I (ptsI) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase transport system from Streptococcus mutans. Boyd, D.A., Cvitkovitch, D.G., Hamilton, I.R. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Unique dicistronic operon (ptsI-crr) in Mycoplasma capricolum encoding enzyme I and the glucose-specific enzyme IIA of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system: cloning, sequencing, promoter analysis, and protein characterization. Zhu, P.P., Reizer, J., Peterkofsky, A. Protein Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The roles of HPr and FPr in the utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. Kornberg, H. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Unique regulation of carbohydrate chemotaxis in Bacillus subtilis by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein McpC. Garrity, L.F., Schiel, S.L., Merrill, R., Reizer, J., Saier, M.H., Ordal, G.W. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Staphylococcal phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. Purification and protein sequencing of the Staphylococcus carnosus histidine-containing protein, and cloning and DNA sequencing of the ptsH gene. Eisermann, R., Fischer, R., Kessler, U., Neubauer, A., Hengstenberg, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Relationship between pseudo-HPr and the PEP: fructose phosphotransferase system in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Geerse, R.H., Ruig, C.R., Schuitema, A.R., Postma, P.W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. An efficient method for sampling the essential subspace of proteins. Amadei, A., Linssen, A.B., de Groot, B.L., van Aalten, D.M., Berendsen, H.J. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (1996) [Pubmed]
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