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Gene Review

mutS  -  DNA mismatch repair protein MutS

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of mutS


High impact information on mutS

  • Methyl-directed DNA mismatch repair was lost completely for any type of mismatch in strains carrying either mutL or mutS mutations [5].
  • Escherichia coli mutS-encoded protein binds to mismatched DNA base pairs [1].
  • From those genes involved in DNA metabolism that have not previously been shown to be induced by DNA damage, the mutS gene involved in mismatch repair is especially noteworthy [6].
  • Complementation of the hypermutator phenotype of a P. aeruginosa mutS mutant strain indicated that the isolated gene was functional [7].
  • We also show by microarray and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR that both dam and dam mutS strains show derepression of LexA-regulated SOS genes as well as the up-regulation of other non-SOS genes involved in DNA repair [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of mutS

  • This study compared the frequencies of emerging ceftazidime resistance in isogenic wild-type and hyper-mutable mutS CTX-M-3-producing Escherichia coli strains, and sequenced the mutant bla(CTX-M) alleles selected [9].

Biological context of mutS

  • The Mu d1(Ap lac) insertions in these mutants were genetically mapped between mutS and srl and thus define a new locus we have termed ant (anaerobic electron transport) [10].
  • In the mutS host, when the sequence homology of a pair of 405 bp substrates decreased from 100% to 89%, the recombinant frequency decreased by about 9-fold, while in the wild-type host the decrease was about 240-fold [11].
  • Transcription of mutS and mutL-homologous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle [12].
  • Increasing the wild-type mutS gene dosage resulted in a reversal of the mutator phenotype in about 60% of the mutant strains, indicating that the mutant and wild-type proteins compete [13].
  • Mutations in sbcCD, mutS and recA significantly improve the recovery of plasmids with TGG(24) on the lagging-strand template [14].

Associations of mutS with chemical compounds

  • Cells deficient in mismatch repair (mutS) appeared to be slightly more sensitive than normal cells to CLB and PAM, although no such sensitivity to MNNG was observed [15].
  • Moreover, although ceftazidime-resistant mutants, or those with reduced susceptibility, were selected in both the wild-type and mutS hosts, many more mutants in the mutS host showed ceftazidimase-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) activity [16].
  • The number of different sequence contexts is sufficient to reveal significant hotspots among the spontaneous mutS, 2-aminopurine, ultraviolet light, 5-azacytidine, and cisplatin mutational spectra [17].
  • The mutS, mutT, mutY, M mutators, as well as the mutagenic agents ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, 2-aminopurine (2AP), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), and cisplatin (CPT) gave results predicted by their characterized specificities [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mutS

  • Using a degenerate PCR strategy, we cloned a Trypanosoma cruzi genomic DNA fragment homologous to the mutS gene class two (MSH2) [18].
  • Restriction maps based on five enzymes and sequence analysis showed that strains of the EPEC 1, EPEC 2, and EHEC 2 groups have a long mutS-rpoS region composed of a approximately 6.0-kb DNA segment found in strain K-12 and a novel DNA segment ( approximately 2.9 kb) located at the 3' end of rpoS [19].


  1. Escherichia coli mutS-encoded protein binds to mismatched DNA base pairs. Su, S.S., Modrich, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Genomic variability among enteric pathogens: the case of the mutS-rpoS intergenic region. Kotewicz, M.L., Brown, E.W., Eugene LeClerc, J., Cebula, T.A. Trends Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cisplatin induces DNA double-strand break formation in Escherichia coli dam mutants. Nowosielska, A., Marinus, M.G. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Demonstration and characterization of mutations induced by Helicobacter pylori organisms in gastric epithelial cells. Yao, Y., Tao, H., Park, D.I., Sepulveda, J.L., Sepulveda, A.R. Helicobacter (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Different base/base mismatches are corrected with different efficiencies by the methyl-directed DNA mismatch-repair system of E. coli. Kramer, B., Kramer, W., Fritz, H.J. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli. Khil, P.P., Camerini-Otero, R.D. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotides and heteroduplex DNA preserve the active conformation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutS by preventing protein oligomerization. Pezza, R.J., Smania, A.M., Barra, J.L., Argaraña, C.E. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of global gene expression and double-strand-break formation in DNA adenine methyltransferase- and mismatch repair-deficient Escherichia coli. Robbins-Manke, J.L., Zdraveski, Z.Z., Marinus, M., Essigmann, J.M. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of high-level ceftazidime resistance via single-base substitutions of blaCTX-M-3 in hyper-mutable Escherichia coli. Karisik, E., Ellington, M.J., Pike, R., Livermore, D.M., Woodford, N. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Anaerobiosis induces expression of ant, a new Escherichia coli locus with a role in anaerobic electron transport. Yerkes, J.H., Casson, L.P., Honkanen, A.K., Walker, G.C. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of base pair mismatches on recombination via the RecBCD pathway. Shen, P., Huang, H.V. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcription of mutS and mutL-homologous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. Kramer, W., Fartmann, B., Ringbeck, E.C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Dominant negative mutator mutations in the mutS gene of Escherichia coli. Wu, T.H., Marinus, M.G. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. The roles of mutS, sbcCD and recA in the propagation of TGG repeats in Escherichia coli. Pan, X., Leach, D.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Polymyxin permeabilization as a tool to investigate cytotoxicity of therapeutic aromatic alkylators in DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Salmelin, C., Hovinen, J., Vilpo, J. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Development of extended-spectrum activity in TEM beta-lactamases in hyper-mutable, mutS Escherichia coli. Ellington, M.J., Livermore, D.M., Pitt, T.L., Hall, L.M., Woodford, N. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Use of the rpoB gene to determine the specificity of base substitution mutations on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Garibyan, L., Huang, T., Kim, M., Wolff, E., Nguyen, A., Nguyen, T., Diep, A., Hu, K., Iverson, A., Yang, H., Miller, J.H. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of the DNA mismatch repair gene class 2 from the Trypanosoma cruzi. Augusto-Pinto, L., Bartholomeu, D.C., Teixeira, S.M., Pena, S.D., Machado, C.R. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene conservation and loss in the mutS-rpoS genomic region of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Herbelin, C.J., Chirillo, S.C., Melnick, K.A., Whittam, T.S. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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