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Gene Review

CHRM2  -  cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
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Disease relevance of CHRM2


Psychiatry related information on CHRM2


High impact information on CHRM2

  • We show that the HM2 and HM3 mAChRs efficiently inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity but poorly activate PI hydrolysis [7].
  • One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions [5].
  • We examined 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the CHRM2 gene in these families [6].
  • In this study, we evaluated whether genetic variation in the CHRM2 gene is also a risk factor for the correlated clinical characteristics of alcoholism and depression [6].
  • The CHRM2 gene contains a single coding exon and a large 5' untranslated region encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced [6].

Biological context of CHRM2


Anatomical context of CHRM2


Associations of CHRM2 with chemical compounds

  • We examined a common A-> T 1890 polymorphism in the 3' UTR of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor 2 (CHRM2) gene [12].
  • Heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is associated with acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene polymorphism [11].
  • In this view, we have synthesized an analogue of fragment 1-47 of hirudin HM2 in which Val1 has been replaced by tert-butylglycine, Ser2 by Arg, and Tyr3 by beta-naphthylalanine, to give the BugArgNal analogue [13].
  • In the M2LKB2-2 cells, carbachol slightly stimulated the [3H]inositol monophosphate formation but had no significant effect in HM2-B10 cells [14].
  • Palmitoylation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes: reduction in their ability to activate G proteins by mutation of a putative palmitoylation site, cysteine 457, in the carboxyl-terminal tail [15].

Other interactions of CHRM2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHRM2

  • Linkage and linkage disequilibrium of evoked EEG oscillations with CHRM2 receptor gene polymorphisms: implications for human brain dynamics and cognition [9].
  • Because acetylcholine receptor subtype M2 (CHRM2) plays a key role in the cardiac chronotropic response, we tested the hypothesis that, in healthy individuals, the CHRM2 gene polymorphisms might be associated with HR recovery 1 min after the termination of a maximal exercise test, both before and after endurance training [11].
  • The diagnostic value of the PCR assay was evaluated in comparison to three other conventional H. meleagridis specific PCR tests (HIS5, HM1 and HM2) [19].
  • Immunoblotting analyses revealed that the polyclonal antibody and four (HM1, HM2, HM3 and HM4) of five monoclonal antibodies reacted with myosin heavy chain [20].
  • A putative palmitoylation site, Cys457, of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor) was eliminated by conversion to alanine or stop codon by site-directed mutagenesis [15].


  1. Reduction in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity but not muscarinic-m2 receptor immunoreactivity in the brainstem of SIDS infants. Mallard, C., Tolcos, M., Leditschke, J., Campbell, P., Rees, S. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Probing the structure of hirudin from Hirudinaria manillensis by limited proteolysis. Isolation, characterization and thrombin-inhibitory properties of N-terminal fragments. Vindigni, A., De Filippis, V., Zanotti, G., Visco, C., Orsini, G., Fontana, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites. Kameyama, K., Haga, K., Haga, T., Moro, O., Sadée, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of toluene exposure on signal transduction: toluene reduced the signaling via stimulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes in CHO cells. Tsuga, H., Haga, T., Honma, T. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. Luo, X., Kranzler, H.R., Zuo, L., Wang, S., Blumberg, H.P., Gelernter, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J., Jones, K., Nurnberger, J.I., Tischfield, J., Porjesz, B., Edenberg, H.J., Hesselbrock, V., Crowe, R., Schuckit, M., Begleiter, H., Reich, T., Goate, A.M., Bierut, L.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential regulation of PI hydrolysis and adenylyl cyclase by muscarinic receptor subtypes. Peralta, E.G., Ashkenazi, A., Winslow, J.W., Ramachandran, J., Capon, D.J. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel polymorphisms influencing transcription of the human CHRM2 gene in airway smooth muscle. Fenech, A.G., Billington, C.K., Swan, C., Richards, S., Hunter, T., Ebejer, M.J., Felice, A.E., Ellul-Micallef, R., Hall, I.P. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium of evoked EEG oscillations with CHRM2 receptor gene polymorphisms: implications for human brain dynamics and cognition. Jones, K.A., Porjesz, B., Almasy, L., Bierut, L., Goate, A., Wang, J.C., Dick, D.M., Hinrichs, A., Kwon, J., Rice, J.P., Rohrbaugh, J., Stock, H., Wu, W., Bauer, L.O., Chorlian, D.B., Crowe, R.R., Edenberg, H.J., Foroud, T., Hesselbrock, V., Kuperman, S., Nurnberger Jr, J., O'Connor, S.J., Schuckit, M.A., Stimus, A.T., Tischfield, J.A., Reich, T., Begleiter, H. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Down-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 adversely affects the expression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant genes and proteins. Zuchner, T., Schliebs, R., Perez-Polo, J.R. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is associated with acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene polymorphism. Hautala, A.J., Rankinen, T., Kiviniemi, A.M., Mäkikallio, T.H., Huikuri, H.V., Bouchard, C., Tulppo, M.P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of the muscarinic cholinergic 2 receptor (CHRM2) gene with major depression in women. Comings, D.E., Wu, S., Rostamkhani, M., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G., MacMurray, J.P. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Incorporation of noncoded amino acids into the N-terminal domain 1-47 of hirudin yields a highly potent and selective thrombin inhibitor. De Filippis, V., Russo, I., Vindigni, A., Di Cera, E., Salmaso, S., Fontana, A. Protein Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacological comparison of the cloned human and rat M2 muscarinic receptor genes expressed in the murine fibroblast (B82) cell line. Kovacs, I., Yamamura, H.I., Waite, S.L., Varga, E.V., Roeske, W.R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Palmitoylation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes: reduction in their ability to activate G proteins by mutation of a putative palmitoylation site, cysteine 457, in the carboxyl-terminal tail. Hayashi, M.K., Haga, T. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Intensity of exercise according to topography in professional cyclists. Rodríguez-Marroyo, J.A., Garciá López, J., Avila, C., Jiménez, F., Cordova, A., Villa Vicente, J.G. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. New findings on the genetic influences on alcohol use and dependence. Higuchi, S., Matsushita, S., Kashima, H. Current opinion in psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Tsuga, H., Kameyama, K., Haga, T., Honma, T., Lameh, J., Sadée, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Specific detection of Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys by a PCR assay with an internal amplification control. Bleyen, N., De Gussem, K., De Gussem, J., Goddeeris, B.M. Vet. Parasitol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Monoclonal antibodies to rabbit hepatocyte myosin that cross-react with human liver myosin. Ueno, T., Watanabe, S., Hirose, M., Nozawa, R., Yasuura, S., Egawa, H., Sato, N., Kominami, E. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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