The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Tff1  -  trefoil factor 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Protein pS2, Ps2, Trefoil factor 1
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Tff1

  • cDNA cloning of rat pS2 peptide and expression of trefoil peptides in acetic acid-induced colitis [1].
  • The loss of pS2 expression in metaplasia and cancer supports a role for this protein in gastric tumor suppression [2].
  • ITF was also induced in human intestinal metaplasia and conserved in all gastric cancers, whereas expression of the gastric peptide pS2 was progressively reduced in the progression from metaplasia to dysplasia [2].
  • The apoptotic cell death induced by PS2 protein was sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting that heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are involved [3].
  • CONCLUSION: The increase in the concentration of TFF1/pS2 in gastric secretions during chronic omeprazole-induced achlorhydria may be important in preventing tissue injury and promoting repair in response to an increased luminal bacterial population [4].

High impact information on Tff1

  • Trefoil factor (TFF)1 is synthesized and secreted by the normal stomach mucosa and by the gastrointestinal cells of injured tissues [5].
  • Distribution and metabolism of intravenously administered trefoil factor 2/porcine spasmolytic polypeptide in the rat [6].
  • The rate of migration of cells at the leading edge of wounded monolayers of the human colonic cell line HT29 was increased by addition of dimeric or monomeric forms of pS2-TFF1 (0.65-325 micrograms/ml) [7].
  • We found that the 4-fluoro derivatives were more estrogenic than the 4-chloro and 4-bromo derivatives as demonstrated by a higher binding affinity for estrogen receptors alpha and beta, an enhanced induction of alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, pS2 expression in S30 cells, and PR expression in Ishikawa cells [8].
  • Members of the trefoil factor (TFF) family are mucin-associated polypeptides that are expressed along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tff1

  • This study investigated the spatiotemporal relationship between TFF3 expression and morphological changes during intestinal damage and repair in a rat model of methotrexate-induced small intestinal mucositis [10].

Biological context of Tff1

  • This adaptation to WRS was accompanied by increased GMBF (being increased by 94.2 %), active cell proliferation in the neck region of gastric glands, and increased expression of pS2 (0.37+/-0.02 vs 0.77+/-0.01, P<0.01) and ITF (0.040+/- 0.001 vs 0.372+/-0.010, P<0.01) [11].

Anatomical context of Tff1

  • Additionally, the present results suggest a role for enteric nervous system and resident immune cells in mediation of colonic TFF3 secretion [12].
  • TFF3 peptide, however, was depleted during histological damage and normalized during repair, mirroring the disappearance and repopulation of goblet cells [10].

Associations of Tff1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Tff1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tff1


  1. cDNA cloning of rat pS2 peptide and expression of trefoil peptides in acetic acid-induced colitis. Itoh, H., Tomita, M., Uchino, H., Kobayashi, T., Kataoka, H., Sekiya, R., Nawa, Y. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Augmented intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) and loss of pS2 (TFF1) expression precedes metaplastic differentiation of gastric epithelium. Taupin, D., Pedersen, J., Familari, M., Cook, G., Yeomans, N., Giraud, A.S. Lab. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Participation of presenilin 2 in apoptosis: enhanced basal activity conferred by an Alzheimer mutation. Wolozin, B., Iwasaki, K., Vito, P., Ganjei, J.K., Lacanà, E., Sunderland, T., Zhao, B., Kusiak, J.W., Wasco, W., D'Adamio, L. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on trefoil peptide expression in the rat stomach. Kang, B., Alderman, B.M., Nicoll, A.J., Cook, G.A., Giraud, A.S. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The trefoil factor 1 participates in gastrointestinal cell differentiation by delaying G1-S phase transition and reducing apoptosis. Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C., Kannan, R., Ribieras, S., Wendling, C., Stoll, I., Thim, L., Tomasetto, C., Rio, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Distribution and metabolism of intravenously administered trefoil factor 2/porcine spasmolytic polypeptide in the rat. Poulsen, S.S., Thulesen, J., Nexø, E., Thim, L. Gut (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Dimerization of human pS2 (TFF1) plays a key role in its protective/healing effects. Marchbank, T., Westley, B.R., May, F.E., Calnan, D.P., Playford, R.J. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of halogenated substituents on the metabolism and estrogenic effects of the equine estrogen, equilenin. Liu, X., Zhang, F., Liu, H., Burdette, J.E., Li, Y., Overk, C.R., Pisha, E., Yao, J., van Breemen, R.B., Swanson, S.M., Bolton, J.L. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The trefoil peptides TFF2 and TFF3 are expressed in rat lymphoid tissues and participate in the immune response. Cook, G.A., Familari, M., Thim, L., Giraud, A.S. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Temporal changes in TFF3 expression and jejunal morphology during methotrexate-induced damage and repair. Xian, C.J., Howarth, G.S., Mardell, C.E., Cool, J.C., Familari, M., Read, L.C., Giraud, A.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of TFF in healing of stress-induced gastric lesions. Nie, S.N., Qian, X.M., Wu, X.H., Yang, S.Y., Tang, W.J., Xu, B.H., Huang, F., Lin, X., Sun, D.Y., Sun, H.C., Li, Z.S. World J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Secretion of the trefoil factor TFF3 from the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon. Moro, F., Levenez, F., Durual, S., Plaisancié, P., Thim, L., Giraud, A.S., Cuber, J.C. Regul. Pept. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Cyclooxygenase 2, pS2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor alpha in gastric adaptation to stress. Nie, S.N., Sun, H.C., Wu, X.H., Qian, X.M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities