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Chemical Compound Review

sodium chloride     sodium chloride

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Disease relevance of sodium chloride


Psychiatry related information on sodium chloride

  • After 24-h water deprivation, five men (23-41 yr; 78 +/- 3.6 kg) consumed, within 4.0-6.2 min, 12 mL/kg of one of six fluid formulations (16.5 C) once a week over a period of 6 weeks: water, hypotonic saline (0.045% Na+), isotonic saline (0.36% Na+), hypertonic glucose (9.7% glucose), and two commercial mildly hypertonic 9.7% carbohydrate drinks [6].
  • Sex differences in temporal characteristics of DNIC were investigated by measuring pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) over time in the trapezius muscles (local pain areas) and the posterolateral neck muscles (referred pain areas) following repeated bilateral injection of hypertonic versus isotonic saline into both trapezius muscles [7].
  • At 29 degrees C, there were no significant differences in REM sleep or in Tb between CLI and SAL rats [8].
  • We found that maternal deprivation caused alterations in the gene expression of both CRH receptors (CRHr) 1 and 2 in specific brain regions, and that some of these effects were augmented by chronic isotonic saline injections [9].
  • Sixteen volunteers with no history of drug abuse received i.v. injections of saline (SAL), morphine (MOR), hydromorphone (HM), or meperidine (MEP) in a randomized double-blind crossover design [10].

High impact information on sodium chloride


Chemical compound and disease context of sodium chloride


Biological context of sodium chloride


Anatomical context of sodium chloride

  • After feeding 200 g of canned dog food to induce continuous contractile activil of isotonic saline was given into the duodenum as a single bolus infusion and recordings were made for a 1-hr period [25].
  • Intragastric instillation of 600 mg of aspirin suspended in 100 ml of isotonic saline caused significant damage to 21 +/- 3% of surface epithelial cells and a marked reduction in gastric potential difference within 15 min of aspirin instillation [26].
  • Bowel sounds were recorded for 10 min when the tube was in the stomach, the upper jejunum, and the cecum, while it was left intact in situ, or perfused with isotonic saline (15 ml per min), or with an equal (7.5 ml per min of each) mixture of isotonic saline and air [27].
  • Chambered stomachs were damaged by hypertonic saline followed by either acidic or neutral isotonic saline [28].
  • A 10-cm segment of the lower esophagus was isolated between two balloons, and the segment was perfused with an unbuffered isotonic saline solution (pH 7) for 30 minutes [29].

Associations of sodium chloride with other chemical compounds

  • 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU unfractionated heparin, or 2000 anti-Xa IU low-molecular-weight heparin [30].
  • After anesthesia, the proximal duodenum was cannulated and perfused with isotonic saline, and [HCO3-] was determined [31].
  • In a randomized, blind, four-period latin square design, 10 subjects received intravenous saline (placebo) or loxiglumide (10 mg/kg per hour) with concomitant intrajejunal perfusions of isotonic saline or fat (containing 50% corn oil and 3% albumin) [32].
  • After a two-week drug-free assessment period, 22 inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder were given either an evening infusion of 150 mg of clomipramine hydrochloride and placebo tablets or 150 mg of oral clomipramine hydrochloride and an isotonic saline infusion [33].
  • Plasma ANP and natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion was impaired both in HF (44 +/- 8 pg/ml, NS vs. base) and NF (40 +/- 7 pg/ml, NS vs. base) compared with C (41 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.01 vs. base) during Saline 1 [34].

Gene context of sodium chloride

  • All subjects underwent the administration of ghrelin, HEX, and GHRH-29 (1.0 microg/kg i.v. at 0 min) as well as placebo (2 mL isotonic saline i.v. at 0 min) [35].
  • During LIP, however, PAI-1 increased to approximately 2.6 fold higher levels than during SAL at 360 min (16.4 +/- 4.0 ng/ml, p < 0.01) [36].
  • Human recombinant IL-1ra (RA) or saline (SA) was infused by intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps in 16 week old mice (n = 9, group RA or n = 12, group SA, respectively) [37].
  • METHODS: Saline and Adriamycin-treated (4 mg/kg) CBA/Ca embryos were harvested between embryonic days (E) 10.5 and 12.5, and Shh and Ptc1 expression was studied by whole-mount and section in situ hybridisation using digoxygenin-labelled riboprobes [38].
  • About 15% of the AChE and 35% of the BuChE activities in NB were recovered in S1, and the rest in S2 [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sodium chloride

  • OVA/SAL mice never differed from the other control groups [14].
  • Lung and large airway tissues obtained 24 h after the last OVA or SAL exposure were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [14].
  • 2 wk after selective perfusion of left kidneys with PAN (n = 8 rats) or isotonic saline (control, n = 7 rats), increases in albumin excretion and decreases in sodium excretion were demonstrated in PAN-perfused but not in nonperfused kidneys of PAN-treated rats although systemic plasma protein concentration remained at control level [40].
  • When perfused with isotonic saline, both allografts and controls secreted water [41].
  • Control experiments showed negligible changes in tumor pH and high energy phosphate concentrations after bolus intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 ml of isotonic saline [42].


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