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Gene Review

Tgfa  -  transforming growth factor alpha

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Protransforming growth factor alpha, RATTGFAA, TGFAA
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Disease relevance of Tgfa


Psychiatry related information on Tgfa


High impact information on Tgfa


Chemical compound and disease context of Tgfa


Biological context of Tgfa


Anatomical context of Tgfa

  • Results: Levels of EGF mRNA remained stable in rat corneas after ablation (68 +/- 12 copies/cell, mean +/- SD), whereas levels of TGF-alpha mRNA progressively increased sixfold to a maximum at day 42 (300 copies/cell) then slightly decreased on day 91 [17].
  • Varying amounts of TGF-alpha were found in granulosa cells and interstitial thecal cells which form follicles [16].
  • It was found that TGF-alpha was predominantly localised in nuclei of oocytes [16].
  • Increased TGF-alpha and EGF Receptor mRNA Expression in Response to Neonatal Unilateral Partial Ureter Obstruction in Rats [15].
  • A novel mechanism for mitogenic signaling via pro-transforming growth factor alpha within hepatocyte nuclei [18].

Associations of Tgfa with chemical compounds

  • (3) The frequency of hepatocytes coexpressing pro-TGF-alpha and DNA synthesis was increased by the hepatomitogens CPA or prostaglandin E(2) and was decreased by the growth inhibitor TGF-beta1 [18].
  • In rat follicles cultured for 2 and 4 days, FSH stimulated estradiol production, TGFalpha secretion, XIAP expression, and follicular growth [19].
  • Intrafollicular injection of a neutralizing anti-TGFalpha antibody (50-200 ng/ml; immunoglobulin G as control) or addition of estradiol-antagonist ICI 182780 (0.5-100 nM) to the culture media suppressed FSH-induced XIAP expression and follicular growth [19].
  • Treatment with TGFalpha or EGF for 24h resulted in significant increase in androgen production in ILC [20].
  • Furthermore, despite an increase in cPLA(2) including its phosphorylated form (phosphoserine), -induced arachidonic acid liberation was impaired in the TGF-alpha/IL-1beta-stimulated cells, in which p11, a putative cPLA(2) inhibitory molecule, was also increased and co-immunoprecipitated with cPLA(2) [21].

Physical interactions of Tgfa


Enzymatic interactions of Tgfa


Regulatory relationships of Tgfa


Other interactions of Tgfa


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tgfa


  1. Transforming growth factor-alpha attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartic acid toxicity in cortical cultures by preventing protein synthesis inhibition through an Erk1/2-dependent mechanism. Petegnief, V., Friguls, B., Sanfeliu, C., Suñol, C., Planas, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Transforming growth factor-alpha prevents detachment-induced inhibition of c-Src kinase activity, Bcl-XL down-regulation, and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Rosen, K., Coll, M.L., Li, A., Filmus, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Stimulation of bone resorption in vitro by synthetic transforming growth factor-alpha. Ibbotson, K.J., Twardzik, D.R., D'Souza, S.M., Hargreaves, W.R., Todaro, G.J., Mundy, G.R. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Transforming growth factor-alpha gene expression in the hypothalamus is developmentally regulated and linked to sexual maturation. Ma, Y.J., Junier, M.P., Costa, M.E., Ojeda, S.R. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Transforming growth factor alpha suppression of articular chondrocyte phenotype and Sox9 expression in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Appleton, C.T., Usmani, S.E., Bernier, S.M., Aigner, T., Beier, F. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Protective effects of neurotrophin-4/5 and transforming growth factor-alpha on striatal neuronal phenotypic degeneration after excitotoxic lesioning with quinolinic acid. Alexi, T., Venero, J.L., Hefti, F. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Integral membrane glycoprotein properties of the prohormone pro-transforming growth factor-alpha. Teixidó, J., Gilmore, R., Lee, D.C., Massagué, J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurotrophic factors and female sexual development. Ojeda, S.R., Dissen, G.A., Junier, M.P. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Activation of hepatic stellate cells by TGF alpha and collagen type I is mediated by oxidative stress through c-myb expression. Lee, K.S., Buck, M., Houglum, K., Chojkier, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro effects of a recombinant toxin targeted to the fibroblast growth factor receptor on rat vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Biro, S., Siegall, C.B., Fu, Y.M., Speir, E., Pastan, I., Epstein, S.E. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in experimental gastric carcinogenesis. Livingstone, J.I., Filipe, M.I., Wastell, C. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition attenuates the development of PKD in Han:SPRD rats. Torres, V.E., Sweeney, W.E., Wang, X., Qian, Q., Harris, P.C., Frost, P., Avner, E.D. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor expression in the exocrine pancreas of azaserine-treated rats: modulation by cholecystokinin or a low fat, high fiber (caloric restricted) diet. Visser, C.J., Woutersen, R.A., Bruggink, A.H., van Garderen-Hoetmer, A., Seifert-Bock, I., Tilanus, M.G., de Weger, R.A. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A critical role for enhanced TGF-alpha and EGFR expression in the initiation of parathyroid hyperplasia in experimental kidney disease. Cozzolino, M., Lu, Y., Sato, T., Yang, J., Suarez, I.G., Brancaccio, D., Slatopolsky, E., Dusso, A.S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased TGF-alpha and EGF Receptor mRNA Expression in Response to Neonatal Unilateral Partial Ureter Obstruction in Rats. Bor, M.V., Shi, Y., Sorensen, B.S., Wen, J.G., Frokiaer, J., Djurhuus, J.C., Nexo, E. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Distribution patterns of TGF-alpha, laminin and fibronectin and their relationship with folliculogenesis in rat ovary. Akkoyunlu, G., Demir, R., Ustünel, I. Acta Histochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunohistochemical Localization of EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta, and Their Receptors in Rat Corneas During Healing of Excimer Laser Ablation. Tuli, S.S., Liu, R., Chen, C., Blalock, T.D., Goldstein, M., Schultz, G.S. Curr. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel mechanism for mitogenic signaling via pro-transforming growth factor alpha within hepatocyte nuclei. Grasl-Kraupp, B., Schausberger, E., Hufnagl, K., Gerner, C., Löw-Baselli, A., Rossmanith, W., Parzefall, W., Schulte-Hermann, R. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of transforming growth factor alpha in the regulation of rat ovarian X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression and follicular growth by follicle-stimulating hormone. Wang, Y., Asselin, E., Tsang, B.K. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Autocrine regulation of steroidogenic function of Leydig cells by transforming growth factor-alpha. Millena, A.C., Reddy, S.C., Bowling, G.H., Khan, S.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Secretory phospholipase A2 mediates cooperative prostaglandin generation by growth factor and cytokine independently of preceding cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression in rat gastric epithelial cells. Akiba, S., Hatazawa, R., Ono, K., Kitatani, K., Hayama, M., Sato, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Transforming growth factor receptors in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy in the rat. Gruppuso, P.A., Mead, J.E., Fausto, N. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of TGF-alpha-induced activation of AP-1 in the aging gastric mucosa. Xiao, Z.Q., Li, J., Majumdar, A.P. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Transforming growth factor-alpha binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor in gastric mucosa. Bielanski, W.J., Keogh, J.P., Wang, S.L., Liu, J., Konturek, S.J., Slomiany, A., Slomiany, B.L. Biochem. Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucose and glucosamine regulate growth factor gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. McClain, D.A., Paterson, A.J., Roos, M.D., Wei, X., Kudlow, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Transforming growth factor-alpha increases tyrosine phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein kinase in a small intestinal crypt cell line (IEC-6). Oliver, B.L., Sha'afi, R.I., Hajjar, J.J. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Phenobarbital suppresses growth and accelerates restoration of differentiation markers of primary culture rat hepatocytes in the chemically defined hepatocyte growth medium containing hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Miyazaki, M., Mars, W.M., Runge, D., Kim, T.H., Bowen, W.C., Michalopoulos, G.K. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 in proliferation and morphogenesis induced by transforming growth factor alpha in gastric epithelial cells. Sawaoka, H., Tsuji, S., Tsujii, M., Gunawan, E.S., Kawai, N., Sasaki, Y., Hori, M., Kawano, S. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Transforming growth factor-beta (beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3) gene expression and action during pubertal development of the seminiferous tubule: potential role at the onset of spermatogenesis. Mullaney, B.P., Skinner, M.K. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. IGF-I production by adult rat hepatocytes is stimulated by transforming growth factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1. Voci, A., Arvigo, M., Massajoli, M., Garrone, S., Bottazzi, C., Demori, I., Gallo, G. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Cyclooxygenase 2, pS2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor alpha in gastric adaptation to stress. Nie, S.N., Sun, H.C., Wu, X.H., Qian, X.M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization discloses recurrent gain of chromosome 4 in experimental gliomas of the rat. Kappler, R., Schlegel, J., Kindler-Röhrborn, A., Mennel, H., Scherthan, H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Role of transforming growth factor alpha and prostaglandins in preferential growth of preneoplastic rat hepatocytes. Hufnagl, K., Parzefall, W., Marian, B., Käfer, M., Bukowska, K., Schulte-Hermann, R., Grasl-Kraupp, B. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Increased production of transforming growth factor alpha following acute gastric injury. Polk, W.H., Dempsey, P.J., Russell, W.E., Brown, P.I., Beauchamp, R.D., Barnard, J.A., Coffey, R.J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Transforming growth factor alpha may be a physiological regulator of liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism. Mead, J.E., Fausto, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
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