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Chemical Compound Review

Bethanecol     2-aminocarbonyloxypropyl- trimethyl-azanium

Synonyms: Mechotane, Mecothane, Mictone, Mictrol, Urabeth, ...
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Disease relevance of Urecholine


Psychiatry related information on Urecholine


High impact information on Urecholine


Chemical compound and disease context of Urecholine


Biological context of Urecholine


Anatomical context of Urecholine


Associations of Urecholine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Urecholine

  • mu-Opiate receptor agonist loperamide blocks bethanechol-induced gallbladder contraction, despite higher cholecystokinin plasma levels in man [34].
  • Studies in vitro dispersed rat pancreatic acini showed that GRF added to the incubation medium of these acini caused an increase in basal amylase release and shifted to the left the amylase dose-response curve to caerulein and urecholine but failed to affect the amylase response to VIP [35].
  • The in vitro response to NMDAR antagonists was measured in tissue strips that were precontracted with bethanechol or electrical field stimulation (in rat and human bladder), phenylephrine (in human corpora cavernosa), or norepinephrine (in human prostate) [36].
  • ISC responses to bethanechol were partially inhibited by pirenzepine in WT ileum, but not tetrodotoxin, suggesting involvement of a non-neuronal M1 muscarinic receptor [37].
  • M3 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice retain bethanechol-mediated intestinal ion transport and are more sensitive to colitis [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Urecholine


  1. Prospective manometric evaluation with pharmacologic provocation of patients with suspected esophageal motility dysfunction. Benjamin, S.B., Richter, J.E., Cordova, C.M., Knuff, T.E., Castell, D.O. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Double-blind controlled trial of bethanechol and antacid versus placebo and antacid in the treatment of erosive esophagitis. Saco, L.S., Orlando, R.C., Levinson, S.L., Bozymski, E.M., Jones, J.D., Frakes, J.T. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of metoclopramide and bethanechol on delayed gastric emptying present in gastroesophageal reflux patients. McCallum, R.W., Fink, S.M., Lerner, E., Berkowitz, D.M. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Divergent effects of bombesin and bethanechol on stimulated gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer and in normal men. Helman, C.A., Hirschowitz, B.I. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Pancreatic polypeptide release: role of stimulants of exocrine pancreatic secretion in dogs. Beglinger, C., Taylor, I.L., Grossman, M.I., Solomon, T.E. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Interdigestive motor activity in patients with systemic sclerosis. Rees, W.D., Leigh, R.J., Christofides, N.D., Bloom, S.R., Turnberg, L.A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Muscarinic agonists for senile dementia: past experience and future trends. Gray, J.A., Enz, A., Spiegel, R. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Intraventricular bethanechol infusion for Alzheimer's disease: results of double-blind and escalating-dose trials. Penn, R.D., Martin, E.M., Wilson, R.S., Fox, J.H., Savoy, S.M. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in the feline medial pontine reticular formation modulates the amount of rapid eye movement sleep. Baghdoyan, H.A., Lydic, R. Sleep. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Time course of isolated rat fundus response to muscarinic agonists: a measure of intrinsic efficacy. Jankovic, S.M., Kouvelas, D., Mirtsou-Fidani, V. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Malakoplakia: evidence for monocyte lysosomal abnormality correctable by cholinergic agonist in vitro and in vivo. Abdou, N.I., NaPombejara, C., Sagawa, A., Ragland, C., Stechschulte, D.J., Nilsson, U., Gourley, W., Watanabe, I., Lindsey, N.J., Allen, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Direct muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of hepatic glucose production in humans. Boyle, P.J., Liggett, S.B., Shah, S.D., Cryer, P.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Enterogastrone-like effect of peptide YY is vagally mediated in the dog. Pappas, T.N., Debas, H.T., Taylor, I.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Interactions of bombesin and substance P at the feline lower esophageal sphincter. Reynolds, J.C., Dukehart, M.R., Ouyang, A., Cohen, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in postoperative intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction in rodents. Kalff, J.C., Schraut, W.H., Billiar, T.R., Simmons, R.L., Bauer, A.J. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Studies on the mechanism of esophagitis-induced lower esophageal sphincter hypotension in cats. Higgs, R.H., Castell, D.O., Eastwood, G.L. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. The rat ventromedial thalamic nucleus and motor control: role of N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitation, GABAergic inhibition, and muscarinic transmission. Klockgether, T., Schwarz, M., Turski, L., Sontag, K.H. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. The use of bethanechol chloride with tricyclic antidepressants. Everett, H.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Overview of diagnostic testing for chest pain of unknown origin. Richter, J.E. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Intestinal hypersecretion of the refed starved rat: a model for alimentary diarrhoea. Young, A., Levin, R.J. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Intracerebroventricular pressure inhibits gastric antral and duodenal contractility but not acid secretion in conscious rabbits. Garrick, T., Mulvihill, S., Buack, S., Maeda-Hagiwara, M., Tache, Y. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of bethanechol on gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin concentration after proximal gastric vagotomy. Feldman, M., Walsh, J.H. Ann. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Shy-Drager syndrome: diagnosis and treatment of cholinergic dysfunction. Khurana, R.K., Nelson, E., Azzarelli, B., Garcia, J.H. Neurology (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Acceleration of desensitization by agonist pre-treatment in the snake. Fiekers, J.F., Neel, D.S., Parsons, R.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanism of action of intracisternal apolipoprotein A-IV in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in rats. Okumura, T., Fukagawa, K., Tso, P., Taylor, I.L., Pappas, T.N. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Interaction of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin and gastrin I with bethanechol in the stimulation of feline colonic smooth muscle. Snape, W.J. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Cholinergic effects on gallbladder emptying in humans. Fisher, R.S., Rock, E., Malmud, L.S. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Acinar cell responsiveness to urecholine in the rat pancreas during fetal and early postnatal growth. Larose, L., Morisset, J. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Cholinergic effects on esophageal transit and clearance. Phaosawasdi, K., Malmud, L.S., Tolin, R.D., Stelzer, F., Applegate, G., Fisher, R.S. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Selective inhibition of pentagastrin- and cholecystokinin-stimulated exocrine secretion by proglumide. Loewe, C.J., Grider, J.R., Gardiner, J., Vlahcevic, Z.R. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Comparative effects of metoclopramide and bethanechol on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in reflux patients. McCallum, R.W., Kline, M.M., Curry, N., Sturdevant, R.A. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of intrasphincteric botulinum toxin on the lower esophageal sphincter in piglets. Pasricha, P.J., Ravich, W.J., Kalloo, A.N. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Calcium dependence of neurotensin stimulation of circular colonic muscle of the rabbit. Snape, W.J., Hyman, P.E., Mayer, E.A., Sevy, N., Kao, H.W., Root, D. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. mu-Opiate receptor agonist loperamide blocks bethanechol-induced gallbladder contraction, despite higher cholecystokinin plasma levels in man. Otto, B., Mawe, G.M., Riepl, R.L. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of growth hormone releasing factor on pancreatic secretion in vivo and in vitro. Konturek, S.J., Bilski, J., Jaworek, J., Mochizuki, T., Yanaihara, C., Yanaihara, N. Regul. Pept. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Presence of NMDA receptor subunits in the male lower urogenital tract. Gonzalez-Cadavid, N.F., Ryndin, I., Vernet, D., Magee, T.R., Rajfer, J. J. Androl. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. M3 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice retain bethanechol-mediated intestinal ion transport and are more sensitive to colitis. Hirota, C.L., McKay, D.M. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of bethanechol or vagal nerve stimulation on ileocecal sphincter pressure in the cat. Rubin, M.R., Cardwell, B.A., Ouyang, A., Snape, W.J., Cohen, S. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  39. In vivo evidence of altered chloride but not potassium secretion in cystic fibrosis rectal mucosa. Goldstein, J.L., Shapiro, A.B., Rao, M.C., Layden, T.J. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Study of electromechanical activity of the stomach in humans and in dogs with particular attention to tachygastria. You, C.H., Chey, W.Y. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of fundic vagotomy and cholinergic replacement on pentagastrin dose responsive gastric acid and pepsin secretion in man. Hirschowitz, B.I., Helman, C.A. Gut (1982) [Pubmed]
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