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Gene Review

ADD2  -  adducin 2 (beta)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADDB, Beta-adducin, Erythrocyte adducin subunit beta
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Disease relevance of ADD2


High impact information on ADD2


Chemical compound and disease context of ADD2


Biological context of ADD2

  • Expression of adducin genes during erythropoiesis: a novel erythroid promoter for ADD2 [6].
  • The very high levels of expression of ADD2 suggest that its promoter may be useful for directing erythroid-specific gene expression [6].
  • Adducin is a heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein, the three subunits of which are encoded by genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3) that map to three different chromosomes [7].
  • In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), beta-adducin (C1797T) and gamma-adducin (A386G), alone or in combination, affected pulse pressure (PP), an index of vascular stiffness [1].
  • Alternatively spliced exons in the 3' region are described and contain distinct coding regions, stop codons, and 3'UTR, corresponding to previously published beta-adducin cDNA sequences beta-1 and beta-2 [8].

Anatomical context of ADD2


Associations of ADD2 with chemical compounds

  • Injection of fragments of Rabphilin-3A indicate that at least two distinct regions of the protein inhibit neurotransmitter release: the NH2-terminal region that binds Rab3A and is phosphorylated by protein kinases and the two C2 domains that interact with calcium, phospholipid, and beta-adducin [12].
  • These results indicate that Rabphilin-3A binds to beta-adducin in the presence of Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine [13].
  • We now demonstrate that PTN stimulates the phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase (PK) C substrate domain of beta-adducin through activation of either PKC alpha or beta [3].

Regulatory relationships of ADD2

  • Expression of ADD2 was induced to very high levels (100 times baseline) in erythropoietin-stimulated cultures [6].

Other interactions of ADD2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADD2


  1. Epistatic interaction between alpha- and gamma-adducin influences peripheral and central pulse pressures in white Europeans. Cwynar, M., Staessen, J.A., Tichá, M., Nawrot, T., Citterio, L., Kuznetsova, T., Wojciechowska, W., Stolarz, K., Filipovský, J., Kawecka-Jaszcz, K., Grodzicki, T., Struijker-Boudier, H.A., Thijs, L., Van Bortel, L.M., Bianchi, G. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Primary structure and domain organization of human alpha and beta adducin. Joshi, R., Gilligan, D.M., Otto, E., McLaughlin, T., Bennett, V. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Pleiotrophin regulates serine phosphorylation and the cellular distribution of beta-adducin through activation of protein kinase C. Pariser, H., Herradon, G., Ezquerra, L., Perez-Pinera, P., Deuel, T.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Adducin regulation. Definition of the calmodulin-binding domain and sites of phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C. Matsuoka, Y., Hughes, C.A., Bennett, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Association between hypertension and variation in the alpha- and beta-adducin genes in a white population. Wang, J.G., Staessen, J.A., Barlassina, C., Fagard, R., Kuznetsova, T., Struijker-Boudier, H.A., Zagato, L., Citterio, L., Messaggio, E., Bianchi, G. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of adducin genes during erythropoiesis: a novel erythroid promoter for ADD2. Yenerel, M.N., Sundell, I.B., Weese, J., Bulger, M., Gilligan, D.M. Exp. Hematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics of hypertension: update and perspectives--the adducin paradigm. Manunta, P., Bianchi, G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Organization of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2). Gilligan, D.M., Lozovatsky, L., Silberfein, A. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification and protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of alpha-adducin in human fibroblasts. Waseem, A., Palfrey, H.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Adducin expression in cutaneous and oral lesions: alpha- and beta-adducin transcripts down-regulate with keratinocyte differentiation in stratified epithelia. Bowen, S.L., Bloor, B.K., Leigh, I.M., Waseem, A. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Utilization of an 86 bp exon generates a novel adducin isoform (beta 4) lacking the MARCKS homology domain. Sinard, J.H., Stewart, G.W., Stabach, P.R., Argent, A.C., Gilligan, D.M., Morrow, J.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Rabphilin-3A: a multifunctional regulator of synaptic vesicle traffic. Burns, M.E., Sasaki, T., Takai, Y., Augustine, G.J. J. Gen. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification as beta-adducin of a protein interacting with rabphilin-3A in the presence of Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine. Miyazaki, M., Shirataki, H., Kohno, H., Kaibuchi, K., Tsugita, A., Takai, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of the adducin family genes in human essential hypertension. Lanzani, C., Citterio, L., Jankaricova, M., Sciarrone, M.T., Barlassina, C., Fattori, S., Messaggio, E., Serio, C.D., Zagato, L., Cusi, D., Hamlyn, J.M., Stella, A., Bianchi, G., Manunta, P. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression analysis of the human adducin gene family and evidence of ADD2 beta4 multiple splicing variants. Citterio, L., Tizzoni, L., Catalano, M., Zerbini, G., Bianchi, G., Barlassina, C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Polymorphisms in four candidate genes in young patients with essential hypertension. Marcun Varda, N., Zagradisnik, B., Herodez, S.S., Kokalj Vokac, N., Gregoric, A. Acta Paediatr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Exclusion of the stomatin, alpha-adducin and beta-adducin loci in a large kindred with dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis. Innes, D.S., Sinard, J.H., Gilligan, D.M., Snyder, L.M., Gallagher, P.G., Morrow, J.S. Am. J. Hematol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Assignment of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2) to 2p13-p14 by in situ hybridization. Gilligan, D.M., Lieman, J., Bennett, V. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
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