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Gene Review

CNGA1  -  cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CNCG, CNCG1, CNG channel alpha-1, CNG-1, CNG1, ...
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Disease relevance of CNGA1


High impact information on CNGA1

  • The human cGMP-gated channel gene (CNCG) is located on chromosome 4 and contains at least 10 exons [3].
  • Ca2+/CaM also binds the N-terminal region of CNGB1 subunits and disrupts an intersubunit, N- and C-terminal interaction between CNGB1 and CNGA1 subunits in rod channels [4].
  • Comparison of expression patterns between adult and fetal cerebral cortex revealed that there were concurrent developmental changes in the expression levels of anti-CNG1 and CNG(alpha)1 [2].
  • The mouse channel gene locus (Cncg) was mapped by interspecific backcross haplotype analysis 0.9 centimorgan proximal of the Kit locus on chromosome 5 [5].
  • When applied to the intracellular side of inside-out excised patches from Xenopus oocytes, dequalinium blocks CNGA1 channels with a K(1/2) approximately 190 nM and CNGA1+CNGB1 channels with a K(1/2) approximately 385 nM, at 0 mV [6].

Biological context of CNGA1


Anatomical context of CNGA1


Associations of CNGA1 with chemical compounds

  • Dequalinium has recently been reported to block CNGA1 and CNGA2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis [15].
  • Three types of subunits have been cloned: an alpha-subunit (CNG1), two beta-subunit splice variants (rCNG4.1 and rCNG4.2) and a hydrophilic glutamic acid-rich protein (rGARP) [14].
  • In this study, we investigated the structure and rearrangement of the CNGA1 channel pore using cysteine mutations and cysteine-specific modification [16].

Other interactions of CNGA1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CNGA1


  1. Genetic basis of total colourblindness among the Pingelapese islanders. Sundin, O.H., Yang, J.M., Li, Y., Zhu, D., Hurd, J.N., Mitchell, T.N., Silva, E.D., Maumenee, I.H. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. An endogenous RNA transcript antisense to CNG(alpha)1 cation channel mRNA. Cheng, C.H., Yew, D.T., Kwan, H.Y., Zhou, Q., Huang, Y., Liu, Y., Chan, W.Y., Yao, X. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Human rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel: amino acid sequence, gene structure, and functional expression. Dhallan, R.S., Macke, J.P., Eddy, R.L., Shows, T.B., Reed, R.R., Yau, K.W., Nathans, J. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcium/calmodulin modulation of olfactory and rod cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trudeau, M.C., Zagotta, W.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Primary structure and chromosomal localization of human and mouse rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel. Pittler, S.J., Lee, A.K., Altherr, M.R., Howard, T.A., Seldin, M.F., Hurwitz, R.L., Wasmuth, J.J., Baehr, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Dequalinium: a novel, high-affinity blocker of CNGA1 channels. Rosenbaum, T., Islas, L.D., Carlson, A.E., Gordon, S.E. J. Gen. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Pakistani family mapped to CNGA1 with identification of a novel mutation. Zhang, Q., Zulfiqar, F., Riazuddin, S.A., Xiao, X., Ahmad, Z., Riazuddin, S., Hejtmancik, J.F. Mol. Vis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Stage- and cell-specific expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase alpha and beta subunits, cGMP-dependent protein kinase I alpha and beta, and cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit 1 in the rat testis. Shi, F., Perez, E., Wang, T., Peitz, B., Lapolt, P.S. J. Androl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Tissue specific expression of alternative splice forms of human cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNGA3. Cassar, S.C., Chen, J., Zhang, D., Gopalakrishnan, M. Mol. Vis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Locking CNGA1 Channels in the Open and Closed State. Nair, A.V., Mazzolini, M., Codega, P., Giorgetti, A., Torre, V. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of canine rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel alpha-subunit gene and exclusion of its involvement in the hereditary retinal dystrophy of Swedish Briards. Veske, A., Nilsson, S.E., Gal, A. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of olfactory-type cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA2) in vascular tissues. Cheng, K.T., Chan, F.L., Huang, Y., Chan, W.Y., Yao, X. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Impaired channel targeting and retinal degeneration in mice lacking the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit CNGB1. Hüttl, S., Michalakis, S., Seeliger, M., Luo, D.G., Acar, N., Geiger, H., Hudl, K., Mader, R., Haverkamp, S., Moser, M., Pfeifer, A., Gerstner, A., Yau, K.W., Biel, M. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning of cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subunits from rat pineal gland. Sautter, A., Biel, M., Hofmann, F. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutation of the pore glutamate affects both cytoplasmic and external dequalinium block in the rat olfactory CNGA2 channel. Qu, W., Moorhouse, A.J., Lewis, T.M., Pierce, K.D., Barry, P.H. Eur. Biophys. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A cysteine scan of the inner vestibule of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels reveals architecture and rearrangement of the pore. Flynn, G.E., Zagotta, W.N. J. Gen. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of cysteine residues in the NCKX2 Na+/Ca(2+)-K+ Exchanger: generation of a functional cysteine-free exchanger. Kinjo, T.G., Szerencsei, R.T., Winkfein, R.J., Schnetkamp, P.P. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Signal transduction in olfactory neurons. Levy, N.S., Bakalyar, H.A., Reed, R.R. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Phototransduction molecules in the pigeon deep brain. Wada, Y., Okano, T., Fukada, Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Eight potassium channel families revealed by the C. elegans genome project. Wei, A., Jegla, T., Salkoff, L. Neuropharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
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