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Gene Review

Fer  -  fer (fms/fps related) protein kinase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AV082135, C330004K01Rik, Fert, Fert2, Proto-oncogene c-Fer, ...
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Disease relevance of Fert2

  • At the molecular level, Fer was found to associate with ERK1/2 and this interaction was intensified under hypoxia [1].

High impact information on Fert2

  • Closing in on the biological functions of Fps/Fes and Fer [2].
  • Here, we report that in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, Fer kinase is activated downstream of activated Fc epsilon RI and activated Kit receptor, and this activation is abolished in cells homozygous for a kinase-inactivating mutation in Fer (fer(DR/DR)) [3].
  • Fer kinase is required for sustained p38 kinase activation and maximal chemotaxis of activated mast cells [3].
  • Thus, Fer is required for maximal p38 kinase activation to promote the chemotaxis of activated mast cells [3].
  • While Fer-deficient cells showed similar activation of the Erk mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, p38 MAP kinase activation was less sustained than that in wild-type cells [3].

Biological context of Fert2


Anatomical context of Fert2

  • No differences were observed in overall cellularity of bone marrow, spleen, or thymus in the absence of Fer activity [4].
  • Herein, we show that insulin up-regulates the levels of the fer mRNA and Fer protein in myoblasts that undergo insulin-induced myogenic differentiation [6].
  • Although no differences in the overall number of granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming progenitors were observed, qualitative differences in myeloid colonies from compound mutant mice suggested a role for Fps and Fer kinases in regulating cell-cell adhesion or a skewing in cellularity of colonies [5].
  • Circulating levels of neutrophils, erythrocytes, and platelets were elevated in compound mutant mice compared to wild-type controls, suggesting that hematopoiesis is deregulated in the absence of Fps and Fer kinases [5].
  • These data provide the first evidence for a biological role for Fer in regulation of leukocyte recruitment during the innate immune response [7].

Associations of Fert2 with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, insulin directs the interaction of Fer with members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak)-Stat3 signaling pathway [6].
  • Here we examined the role of Fer in modulating leucocyte recruitment and epithelial barrier function in the gut in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [8].

Physical interactions of Fert2


Other interactions of Fert2

  • This report represents the first description of a common signaling pathway activating Fer and Fps/Fes [3].
  • Although no major defects were observed in degranulation, leukotriene biosynthesis, and cytokine secretion, Fer-deficient cells displayed increased adhesion and decreased motility upon activation of Fc epsilon RI and the Kit receptor [3].
  • The cytoplasmic distribution of TMF/ARA160 was accompanied by its transient association with the tyrosine kinase Fer and with Stat3, which underwent proteasomal degradation under those conditions [10].
  • Furthermore, this activation was suppressed following inhibition of JAKs (Janus kinases) but not inhibition of Fer, IGF1-R, or kinases of the c-Src family [11].
  • On the other hand, targeted disruption of the Fer kinase or pharmacological inhibition of Abl had no effect [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fert2


  1. Fer kinase sustains the activation level of ERK1/2 and increases the production of VEGF in hypoxic cells. Salem, Y., Shpungin, S., Pasder, O., Pomp, O., Taler, M., Malovani, H., Nir, U. Cell. Signal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Closing in on the biological functions of Fps/Fes and Fer. Greer, P. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Fer kinase is required for sustained p38 kinase activation and maximal chemotaxis of activated mast cells. Craig, A.W., Greer, P.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Mice devoid of fer protein-tyrosine kinase activity are viable and fertile but display reduced cortactin phosphorylation. Craig, A.W., Zirngibl, R., Williams, K., Cole, L.A., Greer, P.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosinekinases play redundant roles in regulating hematopoiesis. Senis, Y.A., Craig, A.W., Greer, P.A. Exp. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Fer is a downstream effector of insulin and mediates the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in myogenic cells. Taler, M., Shpungin, S., Salem, Y., Malovani, H., Pasder, O., Nir, U. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Absence of Fer protein-tyrosine kinase exacerbates leukocyte recruitment in response to endotoxin. McCafferty, D.M., Craig, A.W., Senis, Y.A., Greer, P.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Absence of Fer protein tyrosine kinase exacerbates endotoxin induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in vivo. Qi, W., Ebbert, K.V., Craig, A.W., Greer, P.A., McCafferty, D.M. Gut (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Continuous association of cadherin with beta-catenin requires the non-receptor tyrosine-kinase Fer. Xu, G., Craig, A.W., Greer, P., Miller, M., Anastasiadis, P.Z., Lilien, J., Balsamo, J. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. TMF/ARA160 is a BC-box-containing protein that mediates the degradation of Stat3. Perry, E., Tsruya, R., Levitsky, P., Pomp, O., Taller, M., Weisberg, S., Parris, W., Kulkarni, S., Malovani, H., Pawson, T., Shpungin, S., Nir, U. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell-to-cell adhesion modulates Stat3 activity in normal and breast carcinoma cells. Vultur, A., Cao, J., Arulanandam, R., Turkson, J., Jove, R., Greer, P., Craig, A., Elliott, B., Raptis, L. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Stat3 is required for full neoplastic transformation by the Simian Virus 40 large tumor antigen. Vultur, A., Arulanandam, R., Turkson, J., Niu, G., Jove, R., Raptis, L. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Phosphorylation of N-cadherin-associated cortactin by Fer kinase regulates N-cadherin mobility and intercellular adhesion strength. Sayegh, T.Y., Arora, P.D., Fan, L., Laschinger, C.A., Greer, P.A., McCulloch, C.A., Kapus, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
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