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Gene Review

FER  -  fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Feline encephalitis virus-related kinase FER, FerT, Fujinami poultry sarcoma/Feline sarcoma-related protein Fer, PPP1R74, Pe1Fe10, ...
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Disease relevance of FER


High impact information on FER

  • The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FER is associated with the catenin-like substrate pp120 and is activated by growth factors [4].
  • In order to understand the cellular function of the FER kinase, we analyzed the effect of growth factor stimulation on the phosphorylation and activity of FER [4].
  • The identification of a coiled coil sequence in the FER kinase and the demonstration that the sequence mediates association with a potential substrate suggest a novel mechanism for signal transduction by cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases [4].
  • The human and rat FER genes encode a widely expressed 94-kilodalton protein-tyrosine kinase which is antigenically related to the fps/fes protein-tyrosine kinase [5].
  • The FER gene is evolutionarily conserved and encodes a widely expressed member of the FPS/FES protein-tyrosine kinase family [5].

Biological context of FER

  • The deduced amino acid sequence of FER resembles that of c-fes/fps [6].
  • Using a dominant-negative mutant of FER, we provided evidence that FER kinase activity is required for the growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of cortactin [7].
  • We have now mapped FER to chromosome 5q14----q23 using in situ hybridization techniques and suggest a more precise location within bands 5q21----q22 [1].
  • We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of Sycon raphanus cDNA coding for a 879 aa long protein, which displays high overall similarity in primary structure and organization of domains with non-receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs) from the Fes/FER family [8].
  • The human tyrosine kinase gene (FER) detects an RFLP with BgII [9].

Anatomical context of FER

  • Our observations provide additional support for a role of FER in mediating signaling from the cell surface, via growth factor receptors, to the cytoskeleton [7].
  • Because constituents of the cell-cell contacts are substrates of Fyn and FER, we investigated the effect of shrinkage on the adherens junctions [10].
  • These results represent the first biochemical characterization of the cellular FER gene product and also provide a basis for studying the biochemistry of tyrosine kinase function in HeLa cells [11].
  • These findings suggested that among the cinnamoyl compounds, CMN was most potent and FER appeared to be a better modulating agent on human malignant cell line [12].

Associations of FER with chemical compounds

  • Nuclear and cytoplasmic location of the FER tyrosine kinase [13].
  • Exchange of tyrosine residues 421, 466, and 482 for phenylalanine prevented cortactin phosphorylation by hypertonicity and strongly decreased it upon FER overexpression, suggesting that FER targets primarily the same osmo-sensitive tyrosines [10].
  • The fractional and molar esterification rates (FER and MER) of cholesterol in plasma and HDL were also determined [14].
  • Affinity index (AT value), adsorption heat, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 13C and 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopies were used to study the interaction of highly siliceous MFI-, FAU-, and FER-type zeolites with adsorbed methylamine (MA) [15].
  • Felodipine (10 mg) was randomly given as an extended release (FER) tablet in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over fashion [16].

Regulatory relationships of FER

  • Plasma LCAT activity expressed as FER was significantly enhanced by S alone (+33%), and a further increase on drug combination regimen (+58%) was observed [17].

Other interactions of FER


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FER

  • The location of the FER protein within the cell was investigated by using subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence [13].
  • The patients had mild to moderate hypertension and were randomized to receive felodipine ER (FER) 20 mg (n = 50), FER 10 mg (n = 50), or placebo (n = 51) in a 4-week, double-blind, parallel-group multicenter study [3].
  • RESULTS: Of 1576 silicotic patients included, 55.6% showed normal spirometry, 28.5% normal forced vital capacity (FVC>or=80% predicted) but reduced forced expiratory ratio (FER<70%), 7.6% reduced FVC but normal FER, and 8.4% reduced both FVC and FER [19].


  1. The human tyrosine kinase gene (FER) maps to chromosome 5 and is deleted in myeloid leukemias with a del(5q). Morris, C., Heisterkamp, N., Hao, Q.L., Testa, J.R., Groffen, J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficacy and tolerability of felodipine ER and diltiazem SR as monotherapy in primary hypertension: a double-blind randomized study. Thulin, T., Almkvist, H., Berglund, L., Björnsson, T., Fagher, B., Henningsen, N., Honkavaara, M., Naukkarinen, V., Nordenström, P., Sillanpää, J. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. A placebo-controlled dose-response study of felodipine extended release in hypertensive patients. Liedholm, H., Melander, A. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FER is associated with the catenin-like substrate pp120 and is activated by growth factors. Kim, L., Wong, T.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The FER gene is evolutionarily conserved and encodes a widely expressed member of the FPS/FES protein-tyrosine kinase family. Pawson, T., Letwin, K., Lee, T., Hao, Q.L., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and sequence analysis of a novel human tyrosine kinase gene. Hao, Q.L., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein cortactin is mediated by the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FER. Kim, L., Wong, T.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a cDNA encoding the Fes/FER related, non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase in the marine sponge sycon raphanus. Cetkovic, H., Müller, I.M., Müller, W.E., Gamulin, V. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The human tyrosine kinase gene (FER) detects an RFLP with BgII. Bapat, B., Groffen, J., Ray, P.N. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell volume-dependent phosphorylation of proteins of the cortical cytoskeleton and cell-cell contact sites. The role of Fyn and FER kinases. Kapus, A., Di Ciano, C., Sun, J., Zhan, X., Kim, L., Wong, T.W., Rotstein, O.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterization of a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase of HeLa cells. Feller, S.M., Wong, T.W. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibitory effect of cinnamoyl compounds against human malignant cell line. Indap, M.A., Radhika, S., Motiwale, L., Rao, K.V. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Nuclear and cytoplasmic location of the FER tyrosine kinase. Hao, Q.L., Ferris, D.K., White, G., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol in high density lipoprotein is correlated with low density lipoprotein particle size in children. Ohta, T., Kakiuti, Y., Kurahara, K., Saku, K., Nagata, N., Matsuda, I. J. Lipid Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The leading role of association in framework modification of highly siliceous zeolites with adsorbed methylamine. Han, A.J., Guo, J., Yu, H., Zeng, Y., Huang, Y.F., He, H.Y., Long, Y.C. Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of felodipine on plasma digoxin levels and haemodynamics in patients with heart failure. Kirch, W., Laskowski, M., Ohnhaus, E.E., Aberg, J. J. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in familial hypercholesterolemia treated with simvastatin and simvastatin plus low-dose colestipol. Desager, J.P., Horsmans, Y., Harvengt, C. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the TATA element modulatory factor by the FER nuclear tyrosine kinases. Schwartz, Y., Ben-Dor, I., Navon, A., Motro, B., Nir, U. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Determinants of spirometric abnormalities among silicotic patients in Hong Kong. Leung, C.C., Chang, K.C., Law, W.S., Yew, W.W., Tam, C.M., Chan, C.K., Wong, M.Y. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) (2005) [Pubmed]
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