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Gene Review

gpa-16  -  Protein GPA-16

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on G-protein


Biological context of G-protein


Anatomical context of G-protein

  • These channels, as well as the G-protein Galpha(o), function in neuroendocrine cells to promote release of neurotransmitters that block egg laying until eggs filling the uterus deform the neuroendocrine cells [10].
  • AF2 interaction with Ascaris suum body wall muscle membranes involves G-protein activation [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that oocyte Eph receptor and somatic cell G protein signaling pathways control meiotic diapause in C. elegans, highlighting contrasts and parallels between MSP signaling in C. elegans and luteinizing hormone signaling in mammals [12].

Associations of G-protein with chemical compounds

  • Among the three G-protein-linked acetylcholine receptors (GARs) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), GAR-3 is structurally and pharmacologically most similar to mammalian muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) [13].
  • mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors) are G-protein-coupled receptors that play an important neuromodulatory role in the brain [14].
  • This paper is the first comprehensive study of G protein-coupled serotonin receptors of C. elegans [15].

Other interactions of G-protein

  • The signaling cascade is only partially dependent on the phospholipase C beta (EGL-8) and is negatively regulated by G alpha(o) [GOA-1 (G-protein, O, alpha subunit family member 1)] and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase [UNC-43 (uncoordinated family member 43)] [16].
  • RNAi depletion of gpr-1 and gpr-2, homologs of mammalian AGS3 and Drosophila PINS (receptor-independent G protein regulators), results in a phenotype identical to that of embryos depleted of both GPA-16 and GOA-1; the first cleavage is symmetric, but polarity is not affected [17].
  • To further analyze Galpha(o) signaling, we cloned the egl-47 gene, which was identified by two dominant mutations that severely inhibit egg laying. egl-47 encodes two orphan G-protein-coupled receptor isoforms, which share all seven transmembrane domains but have different extracellular N termini [18].
  • Here we show that the same Ca2+/MAPK pathway promotes str-2 expression in the AWC and ASI neurons together with multiple cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous G-protein-signaling pathways [9].
  • MAU-8 is a Phosducin-like Protein required for G protein signaling in C. elegans [19].


  1. EGL-10 regulates G protein signaling in the C. elegans nervous system and shares a conserved domain with many mammalian proteins. Koelle, M.R., Horvitz, H.R. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Signal transduction in the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. Bargmann, C.I., Kaplan, J.M. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Participation of the protein Go in multiple aspects of behavior in C. elegans. Mendel, J.E., Korswagen, H.C., Liu, K.S., Hajdu-Cronin, Y.M., Simon, M.I., Plasterk, R.H., Sternberg, P.W. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Antagonism between G(o)alpha and G(q)alpha in Caenorhabditis elegans: the RGS protein EAT-16 is necessary for G(o)alpha signaling and regulates G(q)alpha activity. Hajdu-Cronin, Y.M., Chen, W.J., Patikoglou, G., Koelle, M.R., Sternberg, P.W. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. C. elegans G Protein Regulator RGS-3 Controls Sensitivity to Sensory Stimuli. Ferkey, D.M., Hyde, R., Haspel, G., Dionne, H.M., Hess, H.A., Suzuki, H., Schafer, W.R., Koelle, M.R., Hart, A.C. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. LET-99 opposes Galpha/GPR signaling to generate asymmetry for spindle positioning in response to PAR and MES-1/SRC-1 signaling. Tsou, M.F., Hayashi, A., Rose, L.S. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Chemical genetics reveals an RGS/G-protein role in the action of a compound. Fitzgerald, K., Tertyshnikova, S., Moore, L., Bjerke, L., Burley, B., Cao, J., Carroll, P., Choy, R., Doberstein, S., Dubaquie, Y., Franke, Y., Kopczynski, J., Korswagen, H., Krystek, S.R., Lodge, N.J., Plasterk, R., Starrett, J., Stouch, T., Thalody, G., Wayne, H., van der Linden, A., Zhang, Y., Walker, S.G., Cockett, M., Wardwell-Swanson, J., Ross-Macdonald, P., Kindt, R.M. PLoS Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Opposing functions of calcineurin and CaMKII regulate G-protein signaling in egg-laying behavior of C.elegans. Lee, J., Jee, C., Song, H.O., Bandyopadhyay, J., Lee, J.I., Yu, J.R., Lee, J., Park, B.J., Ahnn, J. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Noncell- and cell-autonomous G-protein-signaling converges with Ca2+/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling to regulate str-2 receptor gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. Lans, H., Jansen, G. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. A Specific Subset of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-Type Channel Subunits in Caenorhabditis elegans Endocrine Cells Function as Mixed Heteromers to Promote Neurotransmitter Release. Jose, A.M., Bany, I.A., Chase, D.L., Koelle, M.R. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. AF2 interaction with Ascaris suum body wall muscle membranes involves G-protein activation. Kubiak, T.M., Larsen, M.J., Davis, J.P., Zantello, M.R., Bowman, J.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Galphao/i and Galphas signaling function in parallel with the MSP/Eph receptor to control meiotic diapause in C. elegans. Govindan, J.A., Cheng, H., Harris, J.E., Greenstein, D. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Stimulation of cyclic AMP production by the Caenorhabditis elegans muscarinic acetylcholine receptor GAR-3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Park, Y.S., Cho, T.J., Cho, N.J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular characterization of the metabotropic glutamate receptor family in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dillon, J., Hopper, N.A., Holden-Dye, L., O'connor, V. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans G protein-coupled serotonin receptors. Carre-Pierrat, M., Baillie, D., Johnsen, R., Hyde, R., Hart, A., Granger, L., S??galat, L. Invert. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Starvation induces cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent gene expression through octopamine-Gq signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Suo, S., Kimura, Y., Van Tol, H.H. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Asymmetrically distributed C. elegans homologs of AGS3/PINS control spindle position in the early embryo. Gotta, M., Dong, Y., Peterson, Y.K., Lanier, S.M., Ahringer, J. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of EGL-47, a Galpha(o)-coupled receptor, inhibits function of hermaphrodite-specific motor neurons to regulate Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying behavior. Moresco, J.J., Koelle, M.R. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. MAU-8 is a Phosducin-like Protein required for G protein signaling in C. elegans. Lacoste, C., Barthaux, V., Iborra, C., Seagar, M., Erard-Garcia, M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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