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Gene Review

TADA2A  -  transcriptional adaptor 2A

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADA2, ADA2-like protein, ADA2A, KL04P, TADA2L, ...
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Disease relevance of TADA2L

  • ADA2 is a major component of human plasma total ADA activity and ADA2 activity is significantly elevated in patients with various diseases such as HIV infection and chronic hepatitis [1].
  • These findings suggest that serum ADA isoenzyme activities may be a new marker for liver disease, and that the increased serum ADA2 in chronic active hepatitis is unlikely to be the result of an increase in ADA2 production by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells [2].
  • A significant elevation in ADA2 activity was also seen in the sera of AIDS patients (P < 0.01) compared with that in the sera of HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals [3].
  • In conclusion, we found that ADA2 is a dominant component of tuberculous pleural effusions and that ADA1 is a major component of lymphoid cells [4].
  • In the case of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, ADA1 and ADA2 activities in the sera of patients with AIDS and HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those in the sera of HIV-1 antibody-negative individuals [3].

High impact information on TADA2L

  • In this paper, we have characterized the epitopes recognized by two clonotypically distinct, murine Tg autoreactive T cell hybridomas, CH9 and ADA2 [5].
  • However, complementation of growth and transcriptional activation in gcn5- cells required not only the HAT domain of GCN5, but also interaction with ADA2 [6].
  • CoREST contains two SANT (SW13/ADA2/NCoR/TFIIIB B) domains, a structural feature of the nuclear receptor and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid human receptors (SMRT)-extended corepressors that mediate inducible repression by steroid hormone receptors [7].
  • Ada2 can be precipitated from nuclear extracts by a glutathione S-transferase-tau1 fusion protein coupled to agarose beads, and a direct interaction between Ada2 and tau1c can be shown by using purified proteins [8].
  • Acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) with a monocytic component tended to have a greater percentage of ADA2 than ANLL without a monocytic component [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of TADA2L

  • We investigated serum levels of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) and neopterin (NP) in hemophiliacs with or without infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [10].
  • Our results suggest that ADA2 may be active in sites of inflammation during hypoxia and in areas of tumour growth where the adenosine concentration is significantly elevated and the extracellular pH is acidic [11].

Biological context of TADA2L

  • The human transcriptional adaptor genes TADA2L and GCN5L2 colocalize to chromosome 17q12-q21 and display a similar tissue expression pattern [12].
  • This suggests that non-O ADA2 carrier genotypes may lose in the reproductive stage the selective advantage accumulated during the early stages of development [13].
  • These results suggest that reduced serum total ADA activity reflects decrease in ADA2 activity, and which may be in part associated with depressed cell-mediated immunity during normal pregnancy [14].
  • We measured serum activities of total ADA, ADA1 and ADA2 in normal pregnant women in the third trimester (n=24) and age-matched healthy nonpregnant women (n=24) [14].
  • However, cell fusion experiments between A3-1A7 cells and mouse C1-1D cells established the existence of functional copies of both ADA 1 and ADA 2 allelic genes in the A3-1A7 cells [15].

Anatomical context of TADA2L

  • In this study we succeeded in purifying human plasma ADA2 and demonstrate the extracellular secretion of ADA2 from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore [1].
  • Adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in the immune system, and its activity is composed of two kinetically distinct isozymes, ADA1 and ADA2 [1].
  • The ADA2 isoenzyme activity most likely reflects monocyte-macrophage turnover or activity, while ADA1 probably originates from lymphocytes or neutrophils [16].
  • Total ADA, ADA-2 and 2'-deoxyadenosine deaminase activities were, respectively, 127.5 +/- 2.9, 103 +/- 29.5 and 42.8 +/- 14 U.L-1 in tuberculous exudates [17].
  • Tumor ADA2 and total ADA activities were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with lymph node involvement, histological grade and tumor size, whereas their levels in serum were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with menopausal status and patient age [18].

Associations of TADA2L with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of TADA2L

  • Introduction of the nucleotide substitution into an ADA 1 cDNA and transfection into monkey kidney (Cos) cells confirmed that the mutation resulted in expression of an enzyme that comigrated with the naturally occurring ADA 2 allozyme [22].

Other interactions of TADA2L

  • Northern blot analysis across a range of human tissues revealed that both the TADA2L and the GCN5L2 mRNAs are expressed to varying degrees in all tissue types [12].
  • CONCLUSION: Serum tADA and ADA2 activity is closely associated with RA and these non-invasive investigations can be used as biochemical markers for inflammation [23].
  • ADA2 (but not ADA1) activity in the poorly controlled NIDDM patients directly correlated with the hemoglobin A1c level (P < 0.002) [20].
  • ABO-incompatible newborn infants showed a higher proportion of ADA2 carriers as compared to compatible newborns [13].
  • Only the common ADA1 and ADA2 alleles were found, with the frequencies of the latter being 0.025, 0.103, 0.115 and 0.028 in the Semai, Semelai, Temuan, and Jakun groups, respectively [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TADA2L


  1. Human plasma adenosine deaminase 2 is secreted by activated monocytes. Iwaki-Egawa, S., Yamamoto, T., Watanabe, Y. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes in liver disease. Kobayashi, F., Ikeda, T., Marumo, F., Sato, C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Adenosine deaminase isoenzyme levels in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections. Tsuboi, I., Sagawa, K., Shichijo, S., Yokoyama, M.M., Ou, D.W., Wiederhold, M.D. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Adenosine deaminase isozymes in tuberculous pleural effusion. Shibagaki, T., Hasegawa, Y., Saito, H., Yamori, S., Shimokata, K. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a thyroxine-containing self-epitope of thyroglobulin which triggers thyroid autoreactive T cells. Champion, B.R., Page, K.R., Parish, N., Rayner, D.C., Dawe, K., Biswas-Hughes, G., Cooke, A., Geysen, M., Roitt, I.M. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Histone acetyltransferase activity and interaction with ADA2 are critical for GCN5 function in vivo. Candau, R., Zhou, J.X., Allis, C.D., Berger, S.L. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. CoREST: a functional corepressor required for regulation of neural-specific gene expression. Andrés, M.E., Burger, C., Peral-Rubio, M.J., Battaglioli, E., Anderson, M.E., Grimes, J., Dallman, J., Ballas, N., Mandel, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of the Ada adaptor complex in gene activation by the glucocorticoid receptor. Henriksson, A., Almlöf, T., Ford, J., McEwan, I.J., Gustafsson, J.A., Wright, A.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of adenosine deaminase isozymes in acute leukemia. Ratech, H., Martiniuk, F., Borer, W.Z., Rappaport, H. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Serum adenosine deaminase 2 and neopterin levels are increased in a majority of hemophiliacs irrespective of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Matsuda, J., Tsukamoto, M., Gohchi, K., Saitoh, N., Kawasugi, K., Kinoshita, T. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Human ADA2 belongs to a new family of growth factors with adenosine deaminase activity. Zavialov, A.V., Engström, A. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The human transcriptional adaptor genes TADA2L and GCN5L2 colocalize to chromosome 17q12-q21 and display a similar tissue expression pattern. Carter, K.C., Wang, L., Shell, B.K., Zamir, I., Berger, S.L., Moore, P.A. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction between adenosine deaminase and ABO system polymorphisms: effects on intrauterine survival and reproduction. Bottini, E. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Serum adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzyme pattern in women with normal pregnancies. Yoneyama, Y., Suzuki, S., Sawa, R., Otsubo, Y., Miura, A., Kuwabara, Y., Ishino, H., Kiyokawa, Y., Doi, D., Yoneyama, K., Araki, T. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased expression of one of two adenosine deaminase alleles in a human choriocarcinoma cell line following selection with adenine nucleosides. Yeung, C.Y., Riser, M.E., Kellems, R.E., Siciliano, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Significance of adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzymes in tuberculous effusions. Ungerer, J.P., Oosthuizen, H.M., Retief, J.H., Bissbort, S.H. Chest (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) isoenzyme analysis in pleural effusions: diagnostic role, and relevance to the origin of increased ADA in tuberculous pleurisy. Valdés, L., San José, E., Alvarez, D., Valle, J.M. Eur. Respir. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Adenosine deaminase activity in the serum and malignant tumors of breast cancer: the assessment of isoenzyme ADA1 and ADA2 activities. Aghaei, M., Karami-Tehrani, F., Salami, S., Atri, M. Clin. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes of the opossum Didelphis virginiana: initial chromatographic and kinetic studies. Niedzwicki, J.G., Liou, C., Abernethy, D.R., Lima, J.E., Hoyt, A., Lieberman, M., Bethlenfalvay, N.C. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Elevated adenosine deaminase activity in the serum of patients with diabetes mellitus. Hoshino, T., Yamada, K., Masuoka, K., Tsuboi, I., Itoh, K., Nonaka, K., Oizumi, K. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Erythrocyte acid phosphatase (ACP1) activity. In vitro modulation by adenosine and inosine and effects of adenosine deaminase (ADA) polymorphism. Lucarini, N., Borgiani, P., Ballarini, P., Bottini, E. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. An Asp8Asn substitution results in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) genetic polymorphism (ADA 2 allozyme): occurrence on different chromosomal backgrounds and apparent intragenic crossover. Hirschhorn, R., Yang, D.R., Israni, A. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Correlation of serum levels of adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzymes with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Sari, R.A., Taysi, S., Yilmaz, O., Bakan, N. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Adenosine deaminase polymorphism among the Semai, Temuan, Semelai, and Jakun groups of West Malaysian Orang Asli. Welch, Q.B., Shu, L.C., Thangavelu, S., Lie-Injo, E.L. Hum. Hered. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of human proteins functionally conserved with the yeast putative adaptors ADA2 and GCN5. Candau, R., Moore, P.A., Wang, L., Barlev, N., Ying, C.Y., Rosen, C.A., Berger, S.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Automated enzymatic measurement of adenosine deaminase isoenzyme activities in serum. Muraoka, T., Katsuramaki, T., Shiraishi, H., Yokoyama, M.M. Anal. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. The usefulness of serum adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) activity in adults for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Conde, M.B., Marinho, S.R., Pereira, M.d.e. .F., Lapa e Silva, J.R., Saad, M.H., Sales, C.L., Ho, J.L., Kritski, A.L. Respiratory medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Serum adenosine deaminase and procalcitonin concentrations in neutropenic febrile children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Hitoglou-Hatzi, S., Hatzistilianou, M., Gougoustamou, D., Rekliti, A., Agguridaki, C.h., Athanassiadou, F., Frydas, S., Kotsis, A., Catriu, D. Clin. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
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