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Gene Review

Tap2  -  transporter 2, ATP-binding cassette, sub...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ABC18, AI462429, APT2, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 3, Abcb3, ...
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Disease relevance of Tap2


Psychiatry related information on Tap2

  • The effect observed in the Y-1 cell line which expresses apoE may implicate a possible role of this protein in the process of neuronal death that occurred in the Alzheimer's disease [4].

High impact information on Tap2

  • These data indicate that both MHC-linked transporter genes are probably required for class I antigen processing, and that the functional transporter in this pathway may consist of a Ham-1/Ham-2 heterodimer [5].
  • Ham-2 corrects the class I antigen-processing defect in RMA-S cells [5].
  • Here we show that expression of a cloned copy of the Ham-2 gene in RMA-S cells results in recovery of the ability to process and present class I-restricted antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and in partial recovery of class I surface expression [5].
  • There are genes (called HAM1 and HAM2 in the mouse) in this region that encode proteins postulated to be involved in the transport of peptide fragments into the endoplasmic reticulum for association with newly synthesized class I molecules [6].
  • Two closely related genes in this region, HAM1 and HAM2, were cloned and had sequence similarities to a superfamily of genes involved in the ATP-dependent transport of a variety of substrates across cell membranes [7].

Biological context of Tap2


Anatomical context of Tap2

  • The Tap-1 and Tap-2 genes presumably encode a heterodimeric protein complex responsible for transporting endogenous immunogenic peptides to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [12].
  • After exposure to the resident-intruder test, expression of c-fos mRNA in Y1-knockout mice is significantly increased in the medial amygdala, consistent with the activation of centers known to be important in regulating aggressive behavior [13].
  • Poly(A+) RNA was isolated from Y1 and Kin mutant cells and was translated in a cell-free, reticulocyte lysate system in the presence of L-[35S]methionine [14].
  • We first showed that nuclear extracts from bovine adrenal glands interact with the mouse steroidogenic regulatory elements, forming complexes indistinguishable from those produced by nuclear extracts from mouse Y1 adrenocortical cells [15].
  • METHODS: Cultured male donor myoblasts were injected into muscles of female host mice and surviving donor male DNA (myoblasts) quantified using a Y-chromosome specific (Y1) probe [16].

Associations of Tap2 with chemical compounds

  • Y1 receptors regulate aggressive behavior by modulating serotonin pathways [13].
  • The molecular basis for altered cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was examined in three different mutant clones (Kin-1, Kin-7, and Kin-8) derived from the Y1 mouse adrenocortical cell line [14].
  • Y1 cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle by serum starvation and monitored for progression through S phase by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and by measuring the number of nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine [17].
  • On the other hand the steroid dexamethasone increased the density of Y1 receptors by 35% [18].
  • NPY had no effect on basal steroid release from the Y-1 cells [18].

Other interactions of Tap2

  • Class I histocompatibility antigen display is defective in the RMA-S mutant cell line due to a mutation in the Tap-2 gene, which encodes a peptide transporter [19].
  • Alloreactive anti-Qa-1 T cells can be assigned into three different specificity groups based on a Qa-1 modifying gene, Qdm, as well as Qa-1 epitope expression on Tap-2-deficient RMA-S cells [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tap2

  • We examined Tap-1 and Tap-2 mRNA levels in NOD/Smrf mice using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method that detects > or = 25% changes in mRNA [21].
  • Gel shift analysis indicated that a 29-bp oligonucleotide comprising the two putative kappa B sites, which we refer to as Y1-kappa B sequence, specifically binds kappa B-related complexes in nuclear extracts from rat brain areas, NG108-15 cells, and the murine T cell clone A.E7 [22].


  1. Abnormal class I assembly and peptide presentation in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Li, F., Guo, J., Fu, Y., Yan, G., Faustman, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutants of type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa with altered ganglioside-binding activities and diminished toxicity are potent mucosal adjuvants. Nawar, H.F., Arce, S., Russell, M.W., Connell, T.D. Infect. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. TAP2-defective RMA-S cells present Sendai virus antigen to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Zhou, X., Glas, R., Momburg, F., Hämmerling, G.J., Jondal, M., Ljunggren, H.G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuropeptide Y receptor gene regulation in mouse adrenocortical Y-1 cells. Weng, G., Feinstein, D., Reis, D., Wahlestedt, C. Regul. Pept. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Ham-2 corrects the class I antigen-processing defect in RMA-S cells. Attaya, M., Jameson, S., Martinez, C.K., Hermel, E., Aldrich, C., Forman, J., Lindahl, K.F., Bevan, M.J., Monaco, J.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural and serological similarity of MHC-linked LMP and proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase) complexes. Brown, M.G., Driscoll, J., Monaco, J.J. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Transport protein genes in the murine MHC: possible implications for antigen processing. Monaco, J.J., Cho, S., Attaya, M. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Antigen presentation in syrian hamster cells: substrate selectivity of TAP controlled by polymorphic residues in TAP1 and differential requirements for loading of H2 class I molecules. Lobigs, M., Müllbacher, A., Blanden, R.V., Hämmerling, G.J., Momburg, F. Immunogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A cluster of transcribed sequences between the Pb and Ob genes of the murine major histocompatibility complex. Cho, S., Attaya, M., Brown, M.G., Monaco, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. T cell recognition of QA-1b antigens on cells lacking a functional Tap-2 transporter. Aldrich, C.J., Waltrip, R., Hermel, E., Attaya, M., Lindahl, K.F., Monaco, J.J., Forman, J. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded HAM2 is necessary for antigenic peptide loading onto class I MHC molecules. Yang, Y., Früh, K., Chambers, J., Waters, J.B., Wu, L., Spies, T., Peterson, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular basis of genetic polymorphism in major histocompatibility complex-linked proteasome gene (Lmp-2). Zhou, P., Cao, H., Smart, M., David, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Y1 receptors regulate aggressive behavior by modulating serotonin pathways. Karl, T., Lin, S., Schwarzer, C., Sainsbury, A., Couzens, M., Wittmann, W., Boey, D., von Hörsten, S., Herzog, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. mRNA from mutant Y1 adrenal cells directs the synthesis of altered regulatory subunits of type 1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Williams, S.A., Schimmer, B.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Steroidogenic factor I, a key regulator of steroidogenic enzyme expression, is the mouse homolog of fushi tarazu-factor I. Lala, D.S., Rice, D.A., Parker, K.L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. A role for natural killer cells in the rapid death of cultured donor myoblasts after transplantation. Hodgetts, S.I., Spencer, M.J., Grounds, M.D. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Unmasking a growth-promoting effect of the adrenocorticotropic hormone in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells. Lotfi, C.F., Todorovic, Z., Armelin, H.A., Schimmer, B.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies on neuropeptide Y receptors in a mouse adrenocortical cell line. Weng, G., Yee, F., Michl, P., Reis, D., Wahlestedt, C. Mol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Increased class Ib antigen display on TAP-2 mutant cells by a mitochondrial function inhibitor. Hermel, E., Grigorenko, E., Aldrich, C.J. Cell. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Analysis of T cell receptors specific for recognition of class IB antigens. Lowen, L.C., Aldrich, C.J., Forman, J. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Levels of Tap-1 and Tap-2 mRNA and expression of Kd and Db on splenic lymphocytes are normal in NOD mice. Pearce, R.B., Trigler, L., Svaasand, E.K., Chen, H.M., Peterson, C.M. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of mouse neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor gene transcription: a potential role for nuclear factor-kappa B/Rel proteins. Musso, R., Grilli, M., Oberto, A., Gamalero, S.R., Eva, C. Mol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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