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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

G1 Phase

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Disease relevance of G1 Phase


Psychiatry related information on G1 Phase


High impact information on G1 Phase


Chemical compound and disease context of G1 Phase


Biological context of G1 Phase


Anatomical context of G1 Phase


Associations of G1 Phase with chemical compounds

  • The effects of beta-estradiol (estrogen; a minor component of yeast cells) on S. cerevisiae cells in the G0 and G1 phases were examined [17].
  • Assessment of cultures synchronized by double thymidine block and cells fractionated by centrifugation of a Ficoll gradient indicated that the RBL-1 cells acquire receptors in the G1 phase of the cell cycle [26].
  • DMSO resulted in an early, transient (18-24 hr) accumulation of cells in G1 phase followed by a later (5 day), irreversible accumulation of G1 cells [27].
  • A continuous iv infusion of [14C]N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/hour was given to inbred male Wistar Af/Han rats over a period of 8 hours either during the G1 phase, hydroxyurea-synchronized DNA synthesis, or the G2+M-phase of regenerating liver or to untreated rats (G0-phase liver--carcinogen dose, 1.5 mg/kg/hour) [28].
  • This subpopulation, termed "Q-cells," contained markedly reduced RNA and protein levels and had a cell cycle distribution with a predominance of cells in G1 phase, which was nearly identical to that found in fully differentiated dimethyl sulfoxide (CAS:67-68-5; methyl sulfoxide)-induced FL cultures [29].

Gene context of G1 Phase

  • Using strains where CLN1 was expressed conditionally, the essential function of Cln proteins was found to be limited to the G1 phase [30].
  • Cyclin D-dependent kinases phosphorylate Rb to control its activity and they are, in turn, specifically inhibited by the Ink4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) which cause arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle [31].
  • But here we show that G1 cyclins are unstable in G1 phase, and that Clb-Cdc28 activity is not needed fgr G1 cyclin turnover [32].
  • Cyclin E binds and activates the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 and catalyzes the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle [33].
  • Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the G1 phase of the cell cycle [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of G1 Phase


  1. Cyclic AMP-induced cytolysis in S49 cells: selection of an unresponsive "deathless" mutant. Lemaire, I., Coffino, P. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. cul-1 is required for cell cycle exit in C. elegans and identifies a novel gene family. Kipreos, E.T., Lander, L.E., Wing, J.P., He, W.W., Hedgecock, E.M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent kinase CDK4. Kato, J., Matsushime, H., Hiebert, S.W., Ewen, M.E., Sherr, C.J. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Antisense DNA downregulation of the ERBB2 oncogene measured by a flow cytometric assay. Vaughn, J.P., Iglehart, J.D., Demirdji, S., Davis, P., Babiss, L.E., Caruthers, M.H., Marks, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Rapid gene-specific repair of cisplatin lesions at the human DUG/DHFR locus comprising the divergent upstream gene and dihydrofolate reductase gene during early G1 phase of the cell cycle assayed by using the exonucleolytic activity of T4 DNA polymerase. Rampino, N.J., Bohr, V.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Presenilin overexpression arrests cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Arrest potentiated by the Alzheimer's disease PS2(N141I)mutant. Janicki, S.M., Monteiro, M.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cln3 activates G1-specific transcription via phosphorylation of the SBF bound repressor Whi5. de Bruin, R.A., McDonald, W.H., Kalashnikova, T.I., Yates, J., Wittenberg, C. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Replication from oriP of Epstein-Barr virus requires human ORC and is inhibited by geminin. Dhar, S.K., Yoshida, K., Machida, Y., Khaira, P., Chaudhuri, B., Wohlschlegel, J.A., Leffak, M., Yates, J., Dutta, A. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Exit from G1 and S phase of the cell cycle is regulated by repressor complexes containing HDAC-Rb-hSWI/SNF and Rb-hSWI/SNF. Zhang, H.S., Gavin, M., Dahiya, A., Postigo, A.A., Ma, D., Luo, R.X., Harbour, J.W., Dean, D.C. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, is degraded during mitosis. McGarry, T.J., Kirschner, M.W. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Kato, J.Y., Matsuoka, M., Polyak, K., Massagué, J., Sherr, C.J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Hexamethylenebisacetamide-induced erythroleukemia cell differentiation involves modulation of events required for cell cycle progression through G1. Kiyokawa, H., Richon, V.M., Venta-Perez, G., Rifkind, R.A., Marks, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Estrogen-dependent cyclin E-cdk2 activation through p21 redistribution. Planas-Silva, M.D., Weinberg, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor treatment reduces glomerular p16INK4 and p27Kip1 expression in diabetic BBdp rats. Wolf, G., Wenzel, U., Ziyadeh, F.N., Stahl, R.A. Diabetologia (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Non-specific elongation of cell cycle phases by cycloheximide in rat 3Y1 cells, and specific reduction of G1 phase elongation by simian virus 40 large T antigen. Okuda, A., Kimura, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Ribonucleotide reductase gene expression during cyclic AMP-induced cell cycle arrest in T lymphocytes. Albert, D.A., Nodzenski, E. Exp. Cell Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Estrogen can regulate the cell cycle in the early G1 phase of yeast by increasing the amount of adenylate cyclase mRNA. Tanaka, S., Hasegawa, S., Hishinuma, F., Kurata, S. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclin A is required for the onset of DNA replication in mammalian fibroblasts. Girard, F., Strausfeld, U., Fernandez, A., Lamb, N.J. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction of c-Abl and p73alpha and their collaboration to induce apoptosis. Agami, R., Blandino, G., Oren, M., Shaul, Y. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Multisite phosphorylation of a CDK inhibitor sets a threshold for the onset of DNA replication. Nash, P., Tang, X., Orlicky, S., Chen, Q., Gertler, F.B., Mendenhall, M.D., Sicheri, F., Pawson, T., Tyers, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Different G1 cyclins control the timing of cell cycle commitment in mother and daughter cells of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Lew, D.J., Marini, N.J., Reed, S.I. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. TGF-beta 1 inhibition of c-myc transcription and growth in keratinocytes is abrogated by viral transforming proteins with pRB binding domains. Pietenpol, J.A., Stein, R.W., Moran, E., Yaciuk, P., Schlegel, R., Lyons, R.M., Pittelkow, M.R., Münger, K., Howley, P.M., Moses, H.L. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Detection of in vivo stimulated cerebrospinal-fluid lymphocytes by flow cytometry in patients with multiple sclerosis. Noronha, A.B., Richman, D.P., Arnason, B.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Cyclin E/cdk2 and cyclin A/cdk2 kinases associate with p107 and E2F in a temporally distinct manner. Lees, E., Faha, B., Dulic, V., Reed, S.I., Harlow, E. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in rat arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Lai, K., Wang, H., Lee, W.S., Jain, M.K., Lee, M.E., Haber, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Cell cycle-associated changes in receptors for IgE during growth and differentiation of a rat basophilic leukemia cell line. Isersky, C., Metzger, H., Buell, D.N. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of retinoic acid versus dimethyl sulfoxide on Friend erythroleukemia cell growth. I. Cell proliferation, RNA content, and protein content. Traganos, F., Bueti, C., Darzynkiewicz, Z., Melamed, M.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. DNA alkylation and tumor induction in regenerating rat liver after cell cycle-related continuous N-nitrosodimethylamine infusion. Rabes, H.M., Kerler, R., Wilhelm, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of retinoic acid versus dimethyl sulfoxide on Friend erythroleukemia cell growth. II. Induction of quiescent, nonproliferating cells. Traganos, F., Higgins, P.J., Bueti, C., Darzynkiewicz, Z., Melamed, M.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. An essential G1 function for cyclin-like proteins in yeast. Richardson, H.E., Wittenberg, C., Cross, F., Reed, S.I. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Structure of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Ink4d. Luh, F.Y., Archer, S.J., Domaille, P.J., Smith, B.O., Owen, D., Brotherton, D.H., Raine, A.R., Xu, X., Brizuela, L., Brenner, S.L., Laue, E.D. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Yeast G1 cyclins are unstable in G1 phase. Schneider, B.L., Patton, E.E., Lanker, S., Mendenhall, M.D., Wittenberg, C., Futcher, B., Tyers, M. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. Koepp, D.M., Schaefer, L.K., Ye, X., Keyomarsi, K., Chu, C., Harper, J.W., Elledge, S.J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Cyclin D1-mediated inhibition of repair and replicative DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts. Pagano, M., Theodoras, A.M., Tam, S.W., Draetta, G.F. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Liver failure and defective hepatocyte regeneration in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Cressman, D.E., Greenbaum, L.E., DeAngelis, R.A., Ciliberto, G., Furth, E.E., Poli, V., Taub, R. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of tamoxifen on human breast cancer cell cycle kinetics: accumulation of cells in early G1 phase. Osborne, C.K., Boldt, D.H., Clark, G.M., Trent, J.M. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of nicotine on the immune response. II. Chronic nicotine treatment induces T cell anergy. Geng, Y., Savage, S.M., Razani-Boroujerdi, S., Sopori, M.L. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Association of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 with c-Src correlates with association between c-Src and cortactin. Zhan, X., Plourde, C., Hu, X., Friesel, R., Maciag, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in ovarian carcinoma cells by the anti-inflammatory drug NS-398, but not by COX-2-specific RNA interference. Denkert, C., Fürstenberg, A., Daniel, P.T., Koch, I., Köbel, M., Weichert, W., Siegert, A., Hauptmann, S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
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