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Gene Review

Rock2  -  Rho-associated coiled-coil containing...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: ROCK-II, ROK, ROKalpha, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2, ...
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High impact information on Rock2


Biological context of Rock2


Anatomical context of Rock2

  • p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROKalpha induces neurite retraction [4].
  • Here we examined the morphological effect of p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROKalpha, a target for RhoA recently identified, on the nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells [4].
  • Cellular redistribution of PKCalpha, rhoA, and ROKalpha following smooth muscle agonist stimulation [5].
  • GTP gamma S (10(-4) m) stimulated the translocation of RhoA and Rock-2 from the cytosol to the membrane, which was sustained for more than 60 min [6].
  • The mRNA expressions of rho A, ROK alpha and ROK beta in the pregnant myometrium were found to increase in comparison to those in the non-pregnant myometrium [7].

Associations of Rock2 with chemical compounds

  • However, introduction of kinase-dead MRCKalpha did not result in NGF-independent neurite outgrowth as observed with dominant negative kinase-dead ROKalpha or the Rho inhibitor C3 [3].
  • However, genistein did not block neuronal morphological changes induced by microinjection of a constitutively active mutant of ROKalpha [8].
  • Before treatment with GTP gamma S, RhoA and Rock-2 were detected primarily in the cytosolic fraction [6].
  • Expression of ROKalpha, ROKbeta and RhoA was analysed using western blot, whereas Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEF) were measured at the mRNA level [9].

Regulatory relationships of Rock2

  • These results demonstrate that ROKalpha induces neurite retraction acting downstream of Rho in neuronal cells [4].

Other interactions of Rock2

  • Furthermore, we were able to show that binding of these novel binding proteins, as well as the previously described interaction partners ROK alpha (rho A binding kinase alpha) and alpha- and beta-tubulin, bind to specific cytosolic sequences of NCAM [10].
  • These results suggest that although ROKalpha is involved in neurite retraction promoted by RhoA, the related MRCKalpha is conversely involved in neurite outgrowth promoted by Cdc42 and Rac [3].
  • Neurite outgrowth induced by NGF or kinase-dead ROKalpha was inhibited by dominant negative Cdc42(N17), Rac1(N17), and the Src homology 3 domain of c-Crk, indicating the participation of common downstream components [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rock2


  1. The p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROK alpha is a member of a kinase family and is involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Leung, T., Chen, X.Q., Manser, E., Lim, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Active Rho kinase (ROK-alpha ) associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and inhibits insulin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Begum, N., Sandu, O.A., Ito, M., Lohmann, S.M., Smolenski, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase is involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Chen, X.Q., Tan, I., Leung, T., Lim, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROKalpha induces neurite retraction. Katoh, H., Aoki, J., Ichikawa, A., Negishi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Cellular redistribution of PKCalpha, rhoA, and ROKalpha following smooth muscle agonist stimulation. Taggart, M.J., Lee, Y.H., Morgan, K.G. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Sevoflurane inhibits guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-stimulated, Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated contraction of isolated rat aortic smooth muscle. Yu, J., Ogawa, K., Tokinaga, Y., Hatano, Y. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Up-regulation of rho A and rho-kinase mRNAs in the rat myometrium during pregnancy. Niiro, N., Nishimura, J., Sakihara, C., Nakano, H., Kanaide, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Signal transduction pathway regulating prostaglandin EP3 receptor-induced neurite retraction: requirement for two different tyrosine kinases. Aoki, J., Katoh, H., Yasui, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Nakamura, K., Hasegawa, H., Ichikawa, A., Negishi, M. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression and functional role of the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in rat coeliac artery. Teixeira, C.E., Jin, L., Ying, Z., Palmer, T., Priviero, F.B., Webb, R.C. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Novel cytosolic binding partners of the neural cell adhesion molecule: mapping the binding domains of PLC gamma, LANP, TOAD-64, syndapin, PP1, and PP2A. Büttner, B., Kannicht, C., Reutter, W., Horstkorte, R. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
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