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Gene Review

GRIA3  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 3, GLUR-C, GLUR-K3, GLUR3, GLURC, ...
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Disease relevance of GRIA3


Psychiatry related information on GRIA3


High impact information on GRIA3


Chemical compound and disease context of GRIA3


Biological context of GRIA3


Anatomical context of GRIA3


Associations of GRIA3 with chemical compounds

  • However, in rhesus monkeys chronically treated with antipsychotic drugs, clozapine treatment significantly decreased GRIA1 and increased GRIA3 mRNA expression, while both clozapine and haloperidol increased the expression of GRIA2 subunit mRNA [16].
  • Significant reductions were observed in the hippocampal immunoreactivity of both GluR2 and GluR3 AMPA/kainate receptor subtypes in schizophrenic subjects compared to the entire group of non-psychotic control subjects [6].
  • Human T cells express a functional ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR3, and glutamate by itself triggers integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin and fibronectin and chemotactic migration [14].
  • Interestingly, in HI, the same drugs also decreased the editing levels of either the flip (desipramine) or flop (reboxetine) form of GluR3 [17].
  • NMDA treatment did not evoke changes in GluR3 localisation [18].

Regulatory relationships of GRIA3

  • The anesthetic 1-chloro-1,2,2-triflurocyclobutane (F3) weakly inhibited kainate responses in oocytes expressing GluR3 receptors but not oocytes expressing GluR1 or GluR2+3 receptors [19].

Other interactions of GRIA3

  • No mutations were detected in families segregating disorders mapping across GRIA3, one with X-linked bipolar affective disorder (BP) and one with a nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX27) [1].
  • GluR3 and GluR4 mRNAs were expressed at very low levels [12].
  • The genomic characterization of GLUR3 and GABRA3 will allow mutational analysis of these genes as candidates for other X-linked neurological disorders mapping to Xq25-Xq26 and Xq28 [20].
  • AMPA stimulation resulted in a marked decrease in postsynaptic GluR2 and GluR3 subunits, but an increase in GluR6/7 [18].
  • TCR Activation Eliminates Glutamate Receptor GluR3 from the Cell Surface of Normal Human T Cells, via an Autocrine/Paracrine Granzyme B-Mediated Proteolytic Cleavage [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GRIA3

  • Repeated plasma exchanges in one seriously ill child transiently reduced serum titers of GluR3 antibodies, decreased seizure frequency, and improved neurologic function [2].
  • The evidence for GluR3 on T cells includes GluR3-specific RT-PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry [14].
  • Quantitative PCR studies suggested the pronounced expression of PEPA-preferring AMPA receptor subunits (GluR3 and GluR4) and a splice variant (flop) in the mPFC [22].
  • In this study, we found by GluR3-specific immunostaining, flow cytometry, and Western blots that GluR3 cell surface expression decreases dramatically following TCR activation of human T cells [21].
  • METHODS: Two patients with pathologically confirmed RE and increased levels of circulating glutamate receptor subunit (GluR3) antibodies were studied prospectively before, during, and after trials of plasmapheresis (PEX) and other immunomodulation [23].


  1. Characterization of the human glutamate receptor subunit 3 gene (GRIA3), a candidate for bipolar disorder and nonspecific X-linked mental retardation. Gécz, J., Barnett, S., Liu, J., Hollway, G., Donnelly, A., Eyre, H., Eshkevari, H.S., Baltazar, R., Grunn, A., Nagaraja, R., Gilliam, C., Peltonen, L., Sutherland, G.R., Baron, M., Mulley, J.C. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Autoantibodies to glutamate receptor GluR3 in Rasmussen's encephalitis. Rogers, S.W., Andrews, P.I., Gahring, L.C., Whisenand, T., Cauley, K., Crain, B., Hughes, T.E., Heinemann, S.F., McNamara, J.O. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutamate receptor GluR3 antibodies and death of cortical cells. He, X.P., Patel, M., Whitney, K.D., Janumpalli, S., Tenner, A., McNamara, J.O. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibodies to glutamate receptor subtype 3 (GluR3) are found in some patients suffering from epilepsy as the main disease, but not in patients whose epilepsy accompanies antiphospholipid syndrome or Sneddon's syndrome. Ganor, Y., Goldberg-Stern, H., Blank, M., Shoenfeld, Y., Dobrynina, L.A., Kalashnikova, L., Levite, M. Autoimmunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. GluR3 autoantibodies destroy neural cells in a complement-dependent manner modulated by complement regulatory proteins. Whitney, K.D., McNamara, J.O. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutamate receptor subtype expression in human postmortem brain tissue from schizophrenics and alcohol abusers. Breese, C.R., Freedman, R., Leonard, S.S. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of MRX82: a new nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation locus to Xq24-q25 in a Basque family. Martínez, F., Martínez-Garay, I., Oltra, S., Moltó, M.D., Orellana, C., Monfort, S., Prieto, F., Tejada, I. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Ca2+ permeability of KA-AMPA--gated glutamate receptor channels depends on subunit composition. Hollmann, M., Hartley, M., Heinemann, S. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Chronic steroid-responsive encephalitis without autoantibodies to glutamate receptor GluR3. Krauss, G.L., Campbell, M.L., Roche, K.W., Huganir, R.L., Niedermeyer, E. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Regional gene expression of the glutamate receptor subtypes GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 in human postmortem brain. Breese, C.R., Logel, J., Adams, C., Leonard, S.S. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Human glutamate receptor hGluR3 flip and flop isoforms: cloning and sequencing of the cDNAs and primary structure of the proteins. Rampersad, V., Elliott, C.E., Nutt, S.L., Foldes, R.L., Kamboj, R.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Distribution of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits in the human hippocampus and cerebellum. Day, N.C., Williams, T.L., Ince, P.G., Kamboj, R.K., Lodge, D., Shaw, P.J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective alterations in glutamate and GABA receptor subunit mRNA expression in dysplastic neurons and giant cells of cortical tubers. White, R., Hua, Y., Scheithauer, B., Lynch, D.R., Henske, E.P., Crino, P.B. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Human T cells express a functional ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR3, and glutamate by itself triggers integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin and fibronectin and chemotactic migration. Ganor, Y., Besser, M., Ben-Zakay, N., Unger, T., Levite, M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. AMPA/kainate receptor gene expression in normal and Alzheimer's disease hippocampus. Pellegrini-Giampietro, D.E., Bennett, M.V., Zukin, R.S. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. AMPA receptor subunit and splice variant expression in the DLPFC of schizophrenic subjects and rhesus monkeys chronically administered antipsychotic drugs. O'connor, J.A., Muly, E.C., Arnold, S.E., Hemby, S.E. Schizophr. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of editing and expression of glutamate alpha-amino-propionic-acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors by antidepressant drugs. Barbon, A., Popoli, M., La Via, L., Moraschi, S., Vallini, I., Tardito, D., Tiraboschi, E., Musazzi, L., Giambelli, R., Gennarelli, M., Racagni, G., Barlati, S. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Ultrastructural localisation and differential agonist-induced regulation of AMPA and kainate receptors present at the presynaptic active zone and postsynaptic density. Feligioni, M., Holman, D., Haglerod, C., Davanger, S., Henley, J.M. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. Dildy-Mayfield, J.E., Eger, E.I., Harris, R.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Candidate gene analysis in Rett syndrome and the identification of 21 SNPs in Xq. Amir, R., Dahle, E.J., Toriolo, D., Zoghbi, H.Y. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. TCR Activation Eliminates Glutamate Receptor GluR3 from the Cell Surface of Normal Human T Cells, via an Autocrine/Paracrine Granzyme B-Mediated Proteolytic Cleavage. Ganor, Y., Teichberg, V.I., Levite, M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Facilitation of extinction learning for contextual fear memory by PEPA: a potentiator of AMPA receptors. Zushida, K., Sakurai, M., Wada, K., Sekiguchi, M. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Clinical and electroencephalographic correlates in Rasmussen's encephalitis. Andrews, P.I., McNamara, J.O., Lewis, D.V. Epilepsia (1997) [Pubmed]
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