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Gene Review

pax6a  -  paired box 6a

Danio rerio

Synonyms: PAXZF-A, Paired box protein Pax-6, Pax6.1, SO:0000704, cb280, ...
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Disease relevance of pax6a


High impact information on pax6a

  • In contrast, expression of pax6a, which is negatively regulated by shh, was suppressed in the thalamus and pretectum regions, supporting the idea of augmentation of the shh signaling pathway by suppression of foxl1 [2].
  • Complimentary to the changes in Pax2 distribution, there were fewer Pax6-containing cells and pigment epithelium and neural retina were reduced [3].
  • In this study, we have addressed the role of midline signalling in the regulation of Pax2 and Pax6 distributions and in the subsequent morphogenesis of the eyes [3].
  • During later development more limited regions of the brain including the eye, the olfactory bulb and the pituitary gland express pax-6 [4].
  • A stripe of cells in the neuroectoderm, including the prospective diencephalon and a part of the telencephalon, expresses pax-6 as well as the hindbrain and the ventral spinal cord extending from the level of the first rhombomere to the posterior end of the CNS [4].

Biological context of pax6a

  • Pax-6, among other transcription factors, is implicated in development and tissue-specific gene expression of the lens and cornea [5].

Anatomical context of pax6a

  • Formation of the DMB is also defective as shown by a caudal expansion of diencephalic epha4a and pax6a expression into midbrain territory [6].
  • Simultaneous injection of Pax6.1 and Zf-T resulted in embryos lacking notochords, eyes, and brain structures [7].
  • Rod precursors, proliferating cells that normally give rise solely to rod photoreceptors and are the presumed antecedents of the injury-stimulated neuronal progenitors, are not immunostained by antibodies to the pax6 protein [8].

Other interactions of pax6a

  • Additionally, stage-matched zebrafish embryos having decreased pax6a and/or pax6b activity display malformed rhombomere boundaries and an anteriorized hoxd4a expression border [9].
  • Furthermore, an enhancement of six3.1 transcription by Pax6.1 was observed by co-injection experiments [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pax6a

  • Comparative sequence analysis of Pax-6 cDNA clones of both forms of Astyanax fasciatus showed the complete integrity of cave fish Pax-6 mRNA [10].
  • Microinjection of double-stranded RNA targeted to Pax6.1 was associated with depressed expression of Pax6 [7].
  • In order to elucidate a possible role of Pax-6 in the eye regression of a blind cave form of the freshwater fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Teleostei) we investigated the expression of Pax-6 in eyes and brains of different larval stages by in situ hybridization [10].
  • On western blots of retinal proteins, the pax6 antibodies recognize a single band at the approximate size of the zebra fish pax6 protein [8].


  1. Retinal expression of zebrafish six3.1 and its regulation by Pax6. Wargelius, A., Seo, H.C., Austbø, L., Fjose, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional Repressor foxl1 Regulates Central Nervous System Development by Suppressing shh Expression in Zebra Fish. Nakada, C., Satoh, S., Tabata, Y., Arai, K., Watanabe, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Midline signalling is required for Pax gene regulation and patterning of the eyes. Macdonald, R., Barth, K.A., Xu, Q., Holder, N., Mikkola, I., Wilson, S.W. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence and expression pattern of pax-6 are highly conserved between zebrafish and mice. Püschel, A.W., Gruss, P., Westerfield, M. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Enigma of the abundant water-soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the cornea: the "refracton" hypothesis. Piatigorsky, J. Cornea (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries. Erickson, T., Scholpp, S., Brand, M., Moens, C.B., Jan Waskiewicz, A. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Double-stranded RNA injection produces null phenotypes in zebrafish. Li, Y.X., Farrell, M.J., Liu, R., Mohanty, N., Kirby, M.L. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Antibodies against Pax6 immunostain amacrine and ganglion cells and neuronal progenitors, but not rod precursors, in the normal and regenerating retina of the goldfish. Hitchcock, P.F., Macdonald, R.E., VanDeRyt, J.T., Wilson, S.W. J. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Stereospecificity and PAX6 function direct Hoxd4 neural enhancer activity along the antero-posterior axis. Nolte, C., Rastegar, M., Amores, A., Bouchard, M., Grote, D., Maas, R., Kovacs, E.N., Postlethwait, J., Rambaldi, I., Rowan, S., Yan, Y.L., Zhang, F., Featherstone, M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative analysis of Pax-6 sequence and expression in the eye development of the blind cave fish Astyanax fasciatus and its epigean conspecific. Behrens, M., Langecker, T.G., Wilkens, H., Schmale, H. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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