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Gene Review

tal1  -  T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SCL-alpha, SCL-beta, SO:0000704, Stem cell protein, T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 homolog, ...
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High impact information on tal1

  • Immigrants on the way to the thymus expressed c-myb and ikaros but not rag1; they were probably no longer HSCs, however, because they lacked scl and runx1 expression, unlike immigrants to the kidney [1].
  • We conclude that scl is especially critical for the development of arteries where adult hematopoietic stem cells emerge, implicating scl in the formation of hemogenic endothelium [2].
  • To resolve the role of scl in endothelial development, we knocked down its synthesis in zebrafish embryos where early precursors and later phenotypes can be more easily monitored [2].
  • Production of circulating thrombocytes was inhibited by the injection of antisense morpholinos for the stem-cell transcription factor scl and c-mpl, the receptor for thrombopoietin [3].
  • Zebrafish homolog of the leukemia gene CBFB: its expression during embryogenesis and its relationship to scl and gata-1 in hematopoiesis [4].

Biological context of tal1

  • These observations demonstrate that the bls gene product is uniquely required in a non-cell autonomous manner for primitive hematopoiesis, potentially acting via regulation of scl [5].
  • While scl was not required for angioblast specification, forced expression of exogenous scl caused an expansion of both hematopoietic and endothelial gene expression, and a loss of somitic tissue [6].
  • Knockdown of scl resulted in a loss of primitive and definitive hematopoietic cell lineages [6].
  • Using gene expression analysis and visualization of vessel formation in live animals harboring an lmo2 promoter-green fluorescent protein reporter transgene (Tg(lmo2:EGFP)), we show that angioblasts were specified normally in the absence of scl, but later defects in angiogenesis were evident [6].
  • Furthermore, forced expression of pu.1 in the bloodless mutant cloche resulted in myelopoietic rescue, providing intriguing evidence that this gene can function in the absence of some stem cell genes, such as scl, in governing myelopoiesis [7].

Anatomical context of tal1

  • Co-injection of lmo2 mRNA with scl/tal1 dramatically extends its effect to head, heart, pronephros and pronephric duct mesoderm inducing early blood and endothelial genes all along the anteroposterior axis [8].
  • Overexpression of scl, but not bmp4 or gata1, can lead to partial rescue of embryonic blood cells in bls [5].
  • Our study has defined the cis regulatory element(s) for zebrafish scl expression in the brain, spinal cord, and hematopoietic-endothelial progenitors and established a valuable transgenic line Tg(5'5kbscl:EGFP) for studying hematopoietic lineage development [9].
  • In contrast to a recent report, we detected runxa expression in both hematopoietic and neural tissues of the developing zebrafish. runxa transcripts first appear during segmentation in bilateral mesodermal cells that coexpress one of the earliest blood and endothelial cell markers, scl/tal-1 [10].

Other interactions of tal1

  • From 24 hpf, morphants displayed an expansion of the ventral mesoderm-derived ICM, as evidenced by expansion of tal1, lmo2 and crim1 itself [11].
  • Furthermore, we find that hhex and scl can induce each other's expression, suggesting that these two genes cross-regulate each other during early endothelial and blood differentiation [12].
  • Expression was up-regulated in scl gain-of-function embryos, identifying znfl2 as an early erythroid factor that is regulated upstream or independently of gata1 [13].
  • Furthermore, the haematopoietic defect in kgg mutants is not rescued by scl overexpression, suggesting that cdx4 and hox genes act to make the posterior mesoderm competent for blood development [14].


  1. Tracing Hematopoietic Precursor Migration to Successive Hematopoietic Organs during Zebrafish Development. Murayama, E., Kissa, K., Zapata, A., Mordelet, E., Briolat, V., Lin, H.F., Handin, R.I., Herbomel, P. Immunity (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Scl is required for dorsal aorta as well as blood formation in zebrafish embryos. Patterson, L.J., Gering, M., Patient, R. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of thrombocyte development in CD41-GFP transgenic zebrafish. Lin, H.F., Traver, D., Zhu, H., Dooley, K., Paw, B.H., Zon, L.I., Handin, R.I. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Zebrafish homolog of the leukemia gene CBFB: its expression during embryogenesis and its relationship to scl and gata-1 in hematopoiesis. Blake, T., Adya, N., Kim, C.H., Oates, A.C., Zon, L., Chitnis, A., Weinstein, B.M., Liu, P.P. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Non-cell autonomous requirement for the bloodless gene in primitive hematopoiesis of zebrafish. Liao, E.C., Trede, N.S., Ransom, D., Zapata, A., Kieran, M., Zon, L.I. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Zebrafish scl functions independently in hematopoietic and endothelial development. Dooley, K.A., Davidson, A.J., Zon, L.I. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Interplay of pu.1 and gata1 determines myelo-erythroid progenitor cell fate in zebrafish. Rhodes, J., Hagen, A., Hsu, K., Deng, M., Liu, T.X., Look, A.T., Kanki, J.P. Dev. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Lmo2 and Scl/Tal1 convert non-axial mesoderm into haemangioblasts which differentiate into endothelial cells in the absence of Gata1. Gering, M., Yamada, Y., Rabbitts, T.H., Patient, R.K. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The 5' zebrafish scl promoter targets transcription to the brain, spinal cord, and hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors. Jin, H., Xu, J., Qian, F., Du, L., Tan, C.Y., Lin, Z., Peng, J., Wen, Z. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation and characterization of runxa and runxb, zebrafish members of the runt family of transcriptional regulators. Burns, C.E., DeBlasio, T., Zhou, Y., Zhang, J., Zon, L., Nimer, S.D. Exp. Hematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Knockdown of zebrafish crim1 results in a bent tail phenotype with defects in somite and vascular development. Kinna, G., Kolle, G., Carter, A., Key, B., Lieschke, G.J., Perkins, A., Little, M.H. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Hhex and scl function in parallel to regulate early endothelial and blood differentiation in zebrafish. Liao, W., Ho, C.Y., Yan, Y.L., Postlethwait, J., Stainier, D.Y. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterisation of duplicate zinc finger like 2 erythroid precursor genes in zebrafish. Hogan, B.M., Pase, L., Hall, N.E., Lieschke, G.J. Dev. Genes Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. cdx4 mutants fail to specify blood progenitors and can be rescued by multiple hox genes. Davidson, A.J., Ernst, P., Wang, Y., Dekens, M.P., Kingsley, P.D., Palis, J., Korsmeyer, S.J., Daley, G.Q., Zon, L.I. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
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