The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

rst  -  roughest

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG4125, CT13684, Dmel\CG4125, IREE-C, IRREC/RST, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of rst


High impact information on rst


Biological context of rst

  • In addition to showing evidence that rst(D) is a regulatory mutant, the results strongly suggest a previously unnoticed role of the rst gene in the differentiation of secondary/tertiary pigment cell fate as well as establishing the correct timing of surplus cell removal by programmed cell death in the compound eye [6].
  • In order to understand the transcriptional regulation of rst expression we have identified rst cis regulatory sequences in an enhancer detection screen [7].
  • Preferential adhesion mediated by Hibris and Roughest regulates morphogenesis and patterning in the Drosophila eye [8].
  • In addition to the w and rst genes, the minichromosome may carry section 45C-45F from chromosome 2 [9].
  • Mutagenesis of Sim consensus binding sites in the regulatory module required for rst expression in the embryonic midline, abolished rst expression; indicating that the regulation of rst by Sim is direct [10].

Anatomical context of rst

  • The body wall muscles in the Drosophila larva arise from interactions between Duf/Kirre and Irregular chiasm C-roughest (IrreC-rst)-expressing founder myoblasts and sticks-and-stones (SNS)-expressing fusion competent myoblasts in the embryo [11].
  • The expression of rst in the embryonic mesoderm is regulated by at least two separate modules [7].
  • In the case of Sim, we could show that it regulates rst expression in the embryonic midline, but not in the optic lobes [10].
  • IrreC-rst immunoreactivity in neuropils is increased after widespread expression of toxin [12].
  • Irregular chiasm-C-roughest, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, affects sense organ spacing on the Drosophila antenna by influencing the positioning of founder cells on the disc ectoderm [13].

Associations of rst with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of rst

  • Furthermore, we showed that these factors and, in addition, Dmef2 are able to ectopically activate rst expression via the previously described rst cis-regulatory modules [10].

Other interactions of rst

  • Herein, we demonstrate that SNS mediates heterotypic adhesion of S2 cells with Duf/Kirre and IrreC-rst-expressing S2 cells, and colocalizes with these proteins at points of cell contact [11].
  • Primary pigment cells employ Hibris to function as organizers in this process; IPCs minimize contacts with neighboring IPCs and utilize Roughest to maximize contacts with primaries [8].
  • For example, the developmental program of both systems entails cell death, which depends upon the irregular chiasm C-roughest gene, and both systems require the lozenge gene for normal pattern formation [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of rst

  • By dissection of the identified rst cis regulatory sequences we identified several distinct rst regulatory modules [7].


  1. "In vivo" toxicity of a truncated version of the Drosophila Rst-IrreC protein is dependent on the presence of a glutamine-rich region in its intracellular domain. Machado, R.C., Pereira, R.N., Costa, M.S., Ramos, R.G. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The irregular chiasm C-roughest locus of Drosophila, which affects axonal projections and programmed cell death, encodes a novel immunoglobulin-like protein. Ramos, R.G., Igloi, G.L., Lichte, B., Baumann, U., Maier, D., Schneider, T., Brandstätter, J.H., Fröhlich, A., Fischbach, K.F. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. IrreC/rst-mediated cell sorting during Drosophila pupal eye development depends on proper localisation of DE-cadherin. Grzeschik, N.A., Knust, E. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. rst and its paralogue kirre act redundantly during embryonic muscle development in Drosophila. Strünkelnberg, M., Bonengel, B., Moda, L.M., Hertenstein, A., de Couet, H.G., Ramos, R.G., Fischbach, K.F. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Interspecies comparison of a gene pair with partially redundant function: the rst and kirre genes in D. virilis and D. melanogaster. Strünkelnberg, M., de Couet, H.G., Hertenstein, A., Fischbach, K.F. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Requirement of the roughest gene for differentiation and time of death of interommatidial cells during pupal stages of Drosophila compound eye development. Araujo, H., Machado, L.C., Octacílio-Silva, S., Mizutani, C.M., Silva, M.J., Ramos, R.G. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of regulatory modules mediating specific expression of the roughest gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Apitz, H., Kambacheld, M., Höhne, M., Ramos, R.G., Straube, A., Fischbach, K.F. Dev. Genes Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Preferential adhesion mediated by Hibris and Roughest regulates morphogenesis and patterning in the Drosophila eye. Bao, S., Cagan, R. Dev. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Minichromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster derived from the transposing element TE1. Block, K., Ising, G., Ståhl, F. Chromosoma (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Single-minded, Dmef2, Pointed, and Su(H) act on identified regulatory sequences of the roughest gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Apitz, H., Strünkelnberg, M., de Couet, H.G., Fischbach, K.F. Dev. Genes Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. SNS: Adhesive properties, localization requirements and ectodomain dependence in S2 cells and embryonic myoblasts. Galletta, B.J., Chakravarti, M., Banerjee, R., Abmayr, S.M. Mech. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on synaptobrevin. Hiesinger, P.R., Reiter, C., Schau, H., Fischbach, K.F. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Irregular chiasm-C-roughest, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, affects sense organ spacing on the Drosophila antenna by influencing the positioning of founder cells on the disc ectoderm. Venugopala Reddy, G., Reiter, C., Shanbhag, S., Fischbach, K.F., Rodrigues, V. Dev. Genes Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The olfactory and visual systems are closely related in Drosophila. Gaines, P., Carlson, J.R. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities