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Gene Review

lok  -  loki

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 10895, 38B.4, CG10895, CHK-2, CHK2, ...
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Disease relevance of lok


High impact information on lok


Biological context of lok

  • By contrast, depletion of Dmnk/DChk2 by RNA interference had little effect on checkpoint responses to hydroxyurea and irradiation [5].
  • As Polo-like kinase was shown to colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate with Chk2 [Tsvetkov et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 8468-8475] in mammals, these observations suggest that polo might be a key target of Dmchk2 in regulating mitotic entry in response to DNA damage or replication block [6].
  • Drosophila chk2 (Dmchk2, also called Dmnk) plays a crucial role in the DNA damage response pathway mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis [Xu et al., FEBS Lett. 508 (2001) 394-398; Peters et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 11305-11310] [6].
  • We report here the identification and developmental expression of Dmnk (Drosophila maternal nuclear kinase), a Drosophila gene encoding a putative nuclear protein serine/threonine kinase with no apparent homology to previously identified protein kinases and located at 38B on the second chromosome [7].
  • The Dmnk (Drosophila maternal nuclear kinase) gene, encoding a nuclear protein serine/threonine kinase, is expressed predominantly in the germline cells during embryogenesis, suggesting its possible role in the establishment of germ cells [8].

Anatomical context of lok

  • At early cleavage-stages Dmnk transcripts are transiently present throughout the embryo, but become restricted to the posterior pole and then to the newly-formed primordial germ cells (pole cells) by the blastoderm stage [7].
  • Consistent with mRNA expression, Dmnk proteins in pole cell nuclei are sustained during gastrulation [7].
  • Dmnk mRNAs are transcribed in nurse cells and are subsequently localized in the anterior of oocytes during oogenesis, in a manner similar to several maternal transcripts regulating oogenesis and early embryogenesis [7].
  • Dmnk proteins become detectable in both somatic and germ line cell nuclei upon their arrival at the periplasm of the syncytial embryo, but then disappear from the somatic cell nuclei [7].

Associations of lok with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of lok

  • We also show that grp mutant embryos accumulate DNA double-strand breaks and that DNA-damaging agents induce a mnk-dependent block to cellularization and zygotic gene expression [9].

Other interactions of lok

  • We propose a novel role for MEI-41 in DSB repair, independent of the Chk1/Chk2-mediated checkpoint response [10].


  1. Drosophila Chk2 is required for DNA damage-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Xu, J., Xin, S., Du, W. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Ionizing radiation induces caspase-dependent but Chk2- and p53-independent cell death in Drosophila melanogaster. Wichmann, A., Jaklevic, B., Su, T.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Drosophila Wee1 kinase regulates Cdk1 and mitotic entry during embryogenesis. Stumpff, J., Duncan, T., Homola, E., Campbell, S.D., Su, T.T. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of a meiotic checkpoint during Drosophila oogenesis regulates the translation of Gurken through Chk2/Mnk. Abdu, U., Brodsky, M., Schüpbach, T. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Grp/DChk1 is required for G2-M checkpoint activation in Drosophila S2 cells, whereas Dmnk/DChk2 is dispensable. de Vries, H.I., Uyetake, L., Lemstra, W., Brunsting, J.F., Su, T.T., Kampinga, H.H., Sibon, O.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Drosophila chk2 plays an important role in a mitotic checkpoint in syncytial embryos. Xu, J., Du, W. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel Drosophila nuclear protein serine/threonine kinase expressed in the germline during its establishment. Oishi, I., Sugiyama, S., Otani, H., Yamamura, H., Nishida, Y., Minami, Y. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Physical interactions of Dmnk with Orb: implications in the regulated localization of Orb by Dmnk during oogenesis and embryogenesis. Iwai, K., Oishi, I., Xu, X.Z., Minami, Y., Yamamura, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. grp (chk1) replication-checkpoint mutations and DNA damage trigger a Chk2-dependent block at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Takada, S., Kwak, S., Koppetsch, B.S., Theurkauf, W.E. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Drosophila ATR in Double-Strand Break Repair. Larocque, J.R., Jaklevic, B., Su, T.T., Sekelsky, J. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
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