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Gene Review

cdk1-a  -  cyclin-dependent kinase 1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: PSTAIR, cdc-2, cdc2, cdc2-a, cdc28a, ...
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Disease relevance of cdc2


High impact information on cdc2

  • However, p72 directly associates with cdc2-cyclin B in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reaching a peak at M phase [2].
  • Oscillation of MPF is accompanied by periodic association between cdc25 and cdc2-cyclin B [2].
  • The cdc25 protein is a highly specific tyrosine phosphatase that triggers mitosis by dephosphorylating the cdc2 protein kinase [3].
  • Our results indicate that in higher eukaryotes, DNA replication (G1-S) and mitosis (G2-M) may be controlled by distinctly different cdc2 proteins [4].
  • In some organisms the activation of the kinase at the G2/M boundary is due to dephosphorylation of a highly conserved tyrosine residue at position 15 (Y15) of the cdc2 protein [5].

Biological context of cdc2

  • Ablation of cyclin A messenger RNA in cytostatic factor/metaphase-arrested extracts of Xenopus eggs, followed by in vitro progression into interphase, resulted in the premature appearance of cyclin B-cdc2-associated H1 kinase activity and premature entry into mitosis [6].
  • Kinetic studies demonstrate the concentration of cyclin A added does not affect the 10 min lag period required for kinase activation or the timing of maximal activity, but does control the rate of deactivation of cdc2 kinase during exit from mitosis [7].
  • The 42-kD cyclin was also produced by the digestion of native cyclin B forming a complex with cdc2, a catalytic subunit of MPF, and a fragment transiently appeared during cyclin degradation when eggs were released from metaphase II arrest by egg activation [8].
  • Suppressing down-regulation of MAPK at fertilization, for example by constitutively activating the upstream MAPK cascade, specifically suppresses cyclin B-cdc2 kinase activation and its consequence, entry into first mitosis [9].
  • Phosphorylation of cyclin B1 is not required for cdc2 binding or cdc2 kinase activity [10].

Anatomical context of cdc2


Associations of cdc2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of cdc2

  • Porcine brain neurofilament-H tail domain kinase: its identification as cdk5/p26 complex and comparison with cdc2/cyclin B kinase [18].

Enzymatic interactions of cdc2


Regulatory relationships of cdc2


Other interactions of cdc2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cdc2


  1. Inhibition of small G proteins by clostridium sordellii lethal toxin activates cdc2 and MAP kinase in Xenopus oocytes. Rime, H., Talbi, N., Popoff, M.R., Suziedelis, K., Jessus, C., Ozon, R. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Oscillation of MPF is accompanied by periodic association between cdc25 and cdc2-cyclin B. Jessus, C., Beach, D. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of the cdc25 protein during the cell cycle in Xenopus extracts. Kumagai, A., Dunphy, W.G. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence that the G1-S and G2-M transitions are controlled by different cdc2 proteins in higher eukaryotes. Fang, F., Newport, J.W. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of p34CDC28 tyrosine phosphorylation is not required for entry into mitosis in S. cerevisiae. Amon, A., Surana, U., Muroff, I., Nasmyth, K. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Role for cyclin A in the dependence of mitosis on completion of DNA replication. Walker, D.H., Maller, J.L. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of p34cdc2 kinase by cyclin A. Roy, L.M., Swenson, K.I., Walker, D.H., Gabrielli, B.G., Li, R.S., Piwnica-Worms, H., Maller, J.L. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Initiation of cyclin B degradation by the 26S proteasome upon egg activation. Tokumoto, T., Yamashita, M., Tokumoto, M., Katsu, Y., Horiguchi, R., Kajiura, H., Nagahama, Y. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. MAPK inactivation is required for the G2 to M-phase transition of the first mitotic cell cycle. Abrieu, A., Fisher, D., Simon, M.N., Dorée, M., Picard, A. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 mediates its biological activity and is regulated by phosphorylation. Li, J., Meyer, A.N., Donoghue, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclin B in Xenopus oocytes: implications for the mechanism of pre-MPF activation. Gautier, J., Maller, J.L. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The cytoskeleton-dependent localization of cdc2/cyclin B in blastomere cortex during Xenopus embryonic cell cycle. Nakamura, N., Tokumoto, T., Ueno, S., Iwao, Y. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Phosphorylation by cdc2-CyclinB1 kinase releases cytoplasmic dynein from membranes. Addinall, S.G., Mayr, P.S., Doyle, S., Sheehan, J.K., Woodman, P.G., Allan, V.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Oncogenic ras triggers the activation of 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase in extracts of quiescent Xenopus oocytes. Shibuya, E.K., Polverino, A.J., Chang, E., Wigler, M., Ruderman, J.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Requirement of mosXe protein kinase for meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes induced by a cdc2 mutant lacking regulatory phosphorylation sites. Pickham, K.M., Meyer, A.N., Li, J., Donoghue, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Brefeldin A provokes indirect activation of cdc2 kinase (MPF) in Xenopus oocytes, resulting in meiotic cell division. Mulner-Lorillon, O., Bellé, R., Cormier, P., Drewing, S., Minella, O., Poulhe, R., Schmalzing, G. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of the early embryonic cell cycles of Xenopus; regulation of cell cycle length by Xe-wee1 and Mos. Murakami, M.S., Vande Woude, G.F. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Porcine brain neurofilament-H tail domain kinase: its identification as cdk5/p26 complex and comparison with cdc2/cyclin B kinase. Hisanaga, S., Uchiyama, M., Hosoi, T., Yamada, K., Honma, N., Ishiguro, K., Uchida, T., Dahl, D., Ohsumi, K., Kishimoto, T. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. G2 arrest in Xenopus oocytes depends on phosphorylation of cdc25 by protein kinase A. Duckworth, B.C., Weaver, J.S., Ruderman, J.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. A cdc2-related kinase oscillates in the cell cycle independently of cyclins G2/M and cdc2. Gabrielli, B.G., Roy, L.M., Gautier, J., Philippe, M., Maller, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Membrane localization of the kinase which phosphorylates p34cdc2 on threonine 14. Kornbluth, S., Sebastian, B., Hunter, T., Newport, J. Mol. Biol. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Emi1 class of proteins regulate entry into meiosis and the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in Xenopus oocytes. Tung, J.J., Jackson, P.K. Cell Cycle (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation by phosphorylation of Xenopus laevis poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme activity during oocyte maturation. Aoufouchi, S., Shall, S. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of cdc2 activation by INH/PP2A. Lee, T.H., Turck, C., Kirschner, M.W. Mol. Biol. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. c-mos and cdc2 cooperate in the translational activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Culp, P.A., Musci, T.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Phosphorylation of Xenopus cyclins B1 and B2 is not required for cell cycle transitions. Izumi, T., Maller, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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