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Gene Review

Rac2  -  CG8556 gene product from transcript CG8556-RB

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG8556, D-Rac 2, D-Rac2, DRac2, DRacB, ...
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High impact information on Rac2

  • This resistance can be suppressed by reducing the levels of Rho1 or Rac, implicating these GTPases in the behavioral response to ethanol [1].
  • A role for Drosophila IAP1-mediated caspase inhibition in Rac-dependent cell migration [2].
  • These data define a signaling pathway from Trio to Rac to Pak that links guidance receptors to the growth cone cytoskeleton [3].
  • We show that progressive loss of combined Rac1, Rac2 and Mtl activity leads first to defects in axon branching, then guidance, and finally growth [4].
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Trio, is essential for Rac function in axon growth and guidance, but not for epithelial morphogenesis or myoblast fusion [5].

Biological context of Rac2


Anatomical context of Rac2

  • In DOCK2-deficient neutrophils, chemoattractant-induced activation of both Rac1 and Rac2 were severely impaired, resulting in the loss of polarized accumulation of F-actin and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) at the leading edge [7].
  • Finally, though dominant negative Rac1 is able to block filopodia formation in the overexpression experiments, only Rac2 is necessary for filopodia formed by hemocytes after parasitization [9].
  • In both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, UNC-73/Trio functions in axon guidance by signaling through the Rac GTPase to regulate cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for growth cone migrations [10].
  • Rac promotes epithelial cell rearrangement during tracheal tubulogenesis in Drosophila [11].
  • Thus, in the context of Drosophila tracheal development, Rac activity must be maintained at a level necessary to balance the assembly and disassembly of E-Cadherin at cell junctions [11].

Associations of Rac2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Rac2

  • These genes delineate a pathway from Cdc42 and Rac to SCAR and the Arp2/3 complex [14].
  • Our analysis of rac2 phenotypes clearly demonstrates that the altered mesodermal level of Rho-GTPase Rac2 can influence specification of a number of cardiac and muscular cell types including those expressing ladybird [8].
  • Finding that in rac2 mutants ladybird and even skipped-positive muscle founders are overproduced, indicate a new early function for this gene during segregation of muscle progenitors and/or specification of founder cells [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rac2


  1. Distinct Behavioral Responses to Ethanol Are Regulated by Alternate RhoGAP18B Isoforms. Rothenfluh, A., Threlkeld, R.J., Bainton, R.J., Tsai, L.T., Lasek, A.W., Heberlein, U. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A role for Drosophila IAP1-mediated caspase inhibition in Rac-dependent cell migration. Geisbrecht, E.R., Montell, D.J. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Trio combines with dock to regulate Pak activity during photoreceptor axon pathfinding in Drosophila. Newsome, T.P., Schmidt, S., Dietzl, G., Keleman, K., Asling, B., Debant, A., Dickson, B.J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Rac GTPases control axon growth, guidance and branching. Ng, J., Nardine, T., Harms, M., Tzu, J., Goldstein, A., Sun, Y., Dietzl, G., Dickson, B.J., Luo, L. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Rac function and regulation during Drosophila development. Hakeda-Suzuki, S., Ng, J., Tzu, J., Dietzl, G., Sun, Y., Harms, M., Nardine, T., Luo, L., Dickson, B.J. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Drosophila melanogaster Rac2 is necessary for a proper cellular immune response. Williams, M.J., Ando, I., Hultmark, D. Genes Cells (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. DOCK2 is a Rac activator that regulates motility and polarity during neutrophil chemotaxis. Kunisaki, Y., Nishikimi, A., Tanaka, Y., Takii, R., Noda, M., Inayoshi, A., Watanabe, K., Sanematsu, F., Sasazuki, T., Sasaki, T., Fukui, Y. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Modifiers of muscle and heart cell fate specification identified by gain-of-function screen in Drosophila. Bidet, Y., Jagla, T., Da Ponte, J.P., Dastugue, B., Jagla, K. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Reciprocal regulation of Rac1 and Rho1 in Drosophila circulating immune surveillance cells. Williams, M.J., Habayeb, M.S., Hultmark, D. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. The UNC-73/Trio RhoGEF-2 domain is required in separate isoforms for the regulation of pharynx pumping and normal neurotransmission in C. elegans. Steven, R., Zhang, L., Culotti, J., Pawson, T. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Rac promotes epithelial cell rearrangement during tracheal tubulogenesis in Drosophila. Chihara, T., Kato, K., Taniguchi, M., Ng, J., Hayashi, S. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic dissection of trophic interactions in the larval optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster. Rodriguez Moncalvo, V.G., Campos, A.R. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Developmental regulation of cell migration. Insight from a genetic approach in Drosophila. Montell, D.J. Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Abi, Sra1, and Kette control the stability and localization of SCAR/WAVE to regulate the formation of actin-based protrusions. Kunda, P., Craig, G., Dominguez, V., Baum, B. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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