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Gene Review

DMD  -  dystrophin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of DMD


High impact information on DMD


Biological context of DMD


Anatomical context of DMD


Associations of DMD with chemical compounds

  • Finally, we have established that the NH2-terminal domain of dystrophin is functionally as well as structurally homologous to that in alpha-actinin [7].
  • In developing electrocytes (45-mm embryo), dystrophin is already detectable at the acetylcholine receptor-rich ventral pole of the cells before the entry of the electromotor axons [14].
  • In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of dystrophin in the adult electrocyte from Torpedo marmorata and the evolution of its distribution during embryogenesis [14].
  • Like dystrophin, utrophin has been shown to be associated with a membrane-bound glycoprotein complex [16].
  • However, dystrophin, which displayed a diffuse distribution earlier, now colocalized with the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin in the punctate lattice [15].

Physical interactions of DMD


Co-localisations of DMD

  • These intensely stained striations and scattered patches of dystrophin were colocalized with those of vinculin [18].

Other interactions of DMD


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DMD


  1. The chicken dystrophin cDNA: striking conservation of the C-terminal coding and 3' untranslated regions between man and chicken. Lemaire, C., Heilig, R., Mandel, J.L. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell and fiber-type distribution of dystrophin. Hoffman, E.P., Hudecki, M.S., Rosenberg, P.A., Pollina, C.M., Kunkel, L.M. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular diversity of the dystrophin-like protein complex in the developing and adult avian retina. Blank, M., Blake, D.J., Kröger, S. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Dystrophin localization and gene expression in the developing nervous system of the chick. Perrone-Capano, C., Crispino, M., Oteri, G., Tata, A.M., Vignoli, A.L., Poiana, G. J. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The molecular genetics of cardiovascular disease. Anderson, P.A. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Complementary distributions of vinculin and dystrophin define two distinct sarcolemma domains in smooth muscle. North, A.J., Galazkiewicz, B., Byers, T.J., Glenney, J.R., Small, J.V. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of the actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin by mutagenesis and demonstration that dystrophin contains a functionally homologous domain. Hemmings, L., Kuhlman, P.A., Critchley, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Nucleotide sequence of chicken dystrophin cDNA. Lemaire, C., Heilig, R., Mandel, J.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Mitochondrial expression of a short dystrophin-like product with molecular weight of 71 kDa. Chávez, O., Harricane, M.C., Alemán, V., Dorbani, L., Larroque, C., Mornet, D., Rendon, A., Martínez-Rojas, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequence similarity of the amino-terminal domain of Drosophila beta spectrin to alpha actinin and dystrophin. Byers, T.J., Husain-Chishti, A., Dubreuil, R.R., Branton, D., Goldstein, L.S. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. The Dictyostelium gelation factor shares a putative actin binding site with alpha-actinins and dystrophin and also has a rod domain containing six 100-residue motifs that appear to have a cross-beta conformation. Noegel, A.A., Rapp, S., Lottspeich, F., Schleicher, M., Stewart, M. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Association between the muscle-specific proteins desmin and caveolin-3 in muscle cells. Mermelstein, C.S., Martins, E.R., Portilho, D.M., Costa, M.L. Cell Tissue Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolated dystrophin molecules as seen by electron microscopy. Pons, F., Augier, N., Heilig, R., Léger, J., Mornet, D., Léger, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Asymmetric distribution of dystrophin in developing and adult Torpedo marmorata electrocyte: evidence for its association with the acetylcholine receptor-rich membrane. Jasmin, B.J., Cartaud, A., Ludosky, M.A., Changeux, J.P., Cartaud, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. The alpha 5 beta 1 integrin associates with a dystrophin-containing lattice during muscle development. Lakonishok, M., Muschler, J., Horwitz, A.F. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Utrophin actin binding domain: analysis of actin binding and cellular targeting. Winder, S.J., Hemmings, L., Maciver, S.K., Bolton, S.J., Tinsley, J.M., Davies, K.E., Critchley, D.R., Kendrick-Jones, J. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Interaction of dystrophin with cytoskeletal proteins: binding to talin and actin. Senter, L., Luise, M., Presotto, C., Betto, R., Teresi, A., Ceoldo, S., Salviati, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Subcellular localization of dystrophin and vinculin in cardiac muscle fibers and fibers of the conduction system of the chicken ventricle. Vohra, M.S., Komiyama, M., Hayakawa, K., Obinata, T., Shimada, Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Ultrastructural localization of dystrophin in chicken smooth muscle. Harricane, M.C., Augier, N., Leger, J., Anoal, M., Cavadore, C., Mornet, D. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro digestion of dystrophin by calcium-dependent proteases, calpains I and II. Cottin, P., Poussard, S., Mornet, D., Brustis, J.J., Mohammadpour, M., Leger, J., Ducastaing, A. Biochimie (1992) [Pubmed]
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