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Gene Review

VCL  -  vinculin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of VCL


High impact information on VCL


Chemical compound and disease context of VCL


Biological context of VCL


Anatomical context of VCL

  • It is thus proposed that the interactions of the dense plaque with myofilaments or with the membrane do not depend on the presence of vinculin in the plaque [14].
  • The localization of vinculin and talin in embryonic chicken gizzards indicated that both are primarily cytoplasmic during the first 2 embryonic weeks [14].
  • We discuss the possible roles of vinculin and talin in the assembly of membrane-bound dense plaques during the different phases of smooth-muscle development [14].
  • Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron-microscopic labeling revealed that both proteins are associated with membrane-bound dense plaques in muscle cells; however, the most intense labeling for vinculin was located rather closer to the membrane than that for talin [14].
  • IpaA, a Shigella protein secreted upon cell contact, binds to the focal adhesion protein vinculin and is required for efficient bacterial uptake [1].

Associations of VCL with chemical compounds

  • To identify the talin binding domain in vinculin, we expressed the NH2-terminal region of the molecule encoded by two closely similar, but distinct vinculin cDNAs, using an in vitro transcription translation system [15].
  • A considerably (3 times) larger fraction of the talin than of the vinculin molecules was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine [16].
  • The extent of tyrosine modification in talin was compared to that in vinculin, the other focal adhesion component previously found to contain enhanced levels of phosphotyrosine in various retrovirus-transformed cells [16].
  • We show that conformational changes in the head, tail and proline-rich domains are linked structurally and thermodynamically, and propose a combinatorial pathway to activation that ensures that vinculin is activated only at sites of cell adhesion when two or more of its binding partners are brought into apposition [17].
  • Moreover, rhodamine- or fluorescein-conjugated vinculin, when added to these preparations, became specifically associated with the focal contacts regardless of whether the latter were pretreated with fragmin or not [18].

Physical interactions of VCL


Enzymatic interactions of VCL


Co-localisations of VCL


Other interactions of VCL

  • Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, such as vinculin and talin, this filamin isoform is apparently not localized evenly throughout the entire area of adhesion, being absent from or greatly reduced in the distal portion of the area [26].
  • Fluorescence photobleaching recovery analyses performed with living cells microinjected with fluorescently labeled actin, vinculin, and alpha-actinin indicate that each of these proteins maintains a dynamic equilibrium between a soluble cytoplasmic pool and a membrane-bound fraction [27].
  • Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in focal adhesions [3].
  • First, both the purified 30-kDa tail fragment and a fusion protein containing tail domain, vinculin residues 884-1066, protect purified 95-kDa head domain from cleavage by protease V8 in a specific, dose-dependent manner [28].
  • Integrin localization was compared with that of its putative cytoskeletal-associated and extracellular matrix ligands, talin and vinculin and fibronectin and laminin, respectively [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VCL


  1. Binding of the Shigella protein IpaA to vinculin induces F-actin depolymerization. Bourdet-Sicard, R., Rüdiger, M., Jockusch, B.M., Gounon, P., Sansonetti, P.J., Nhieu, G.T. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Disintegration of adhesion plaques in chicken embryo fibroblasts upon Rous sarcoma virus-induced transformation: different dissociation rates for talin and vinculin. Brands, R., de Boer, A., Feltkamp, C.A., Roos, E. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in focal adhesions. Turner, C.E., Glenney, J.R., Burridge, K. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The cytoskeletal protein talin contains at least two distinct vinculin binding domains. Gilmore, A.P., Wood, C., Ohanian, V., Jackson, P., Patel, B., Rees, D.J., Hynes, R.O., Critchley, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of chicken vinculin complements the adhesion-defective phenotype of a mutant mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cell. Samuels, M., Ezzell, R.M., Cardozo, T.J., Critchley, D.R., Coll, J.L., Adamson, E.D. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystal structure of the vinculin tail suggests a pathway for activation. Bakolitsa, C., de Pereda, J.M., Bagshaw, C.R., Critchley, D.R., Liddington, R.C. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. High-affinity interaction of vinculin with actin filaments in vitro. Wilkins, J.A., Lin, S. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. An interaction between vinculin and talin. Burridge, K., Mangeat, P. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Echistatin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in culture. Sato, M., Sardana, M.K., Grasser, W.A., Garsky, V.M., Murray, J.M., Gould, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Mofarotene-induced inhibition of melanoma cell motility by increasing vinculin-containing focal contacts. Helige, C., Hofmann-Wellenhof, R., Fink-Puches, R., Smolle, J. Melanoma Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The adhesion plaque protein, talin, is phosphorylated in vivo in chicken embryo fibroblasts exposed to a tumor-promoting phorbol ester. Beckerle, M.C. Cell Regul. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Three-dimensional structure of vinculin bound to actin filaments. Janssen, M.E., Kim, E., Liu, H., Fujimoto, L.M., Bobkov, A., Volkmann, N., Hanein, D. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Chicken vinculin and meta-vinculin are derived from a single gene by alternative splicing of a 207-base pair exon unique to meta-vinculin. Byrne, B.J., Kaczorowski, Y.J., Coutu, M.D., Craig, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Spatial and temporal relationships between vinculin and talin in the developing chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Volberg, T., Sabanay, H., Geiger, B. Differentiation (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of a talin binding site in the cytoskeletal protein vinculin. Jones, P., Jackson, P., Price, G.J., Patel, B., Ohanion, V., Lear, A.L., Critchley, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Talin is phosphorylated on tyrosine in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. Pasquale, E.B., Maher, P.A., Singer, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural basis for vinculin activation at sites of cell adhesion. Bakolitsa, C., Cohen, D.M., Bankston, L.A., Bobkov, A.A., Cadwell, G.W., Jennings, L., Critchley, D.R., Craig, S.W., Liddington, R.C. Nature (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Actin-independent association of vinculin with the cytoplasmic aspect of the plasma membrane in cell-contact areas. Avnur, Z., Small, J.V., Geiger, B. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Intracellular targeting of pp60src expression: localization of v-src to adhesion plaques is sufficient to transform chicken embryo fibroblasts. Liebl, E.C., Martin, G.S. Oncogene (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of the vinculin-binding site in the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin. McGregor, A., Blanchard, A.D., Rowe, A.J., Critchley, D.R. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Vinculin and 36 kDa protein are not tyrosine-phosphorylated in Rous sarcoma virus infected cells which have been treated with interferon. Strube, W., Jungwirth, C., Ziemiecki, A., Jockusch, B.M. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphorylation of actin-binding proteins by casein kinases 1 and 2. Nakajo, S., Nakaya, K., Nakamura, Y. Biochem. Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification and localization of talin in chick retinal pigment epithelial cells. Philp, N.J., Yoon, M.Y., Hock, R.S. Exp. Eye Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Subcellular localization of dystrophin and vinculin in cardiac muscle fibers and fibers of the conduction system of the chicken ventricle. Vohra, M.S., Komiyama, M., Hayakawa, K., Obinata, T., Shimada, Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Differentiation dependent expression of tensin and cortactin in chicken osteoclasts. Hiura, K., Lim, S.S., Little, S.P., Lin, S., Sato, M. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a filamin isoform enriched at the ends of stress fibers in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Pavalko, F.M., Otey, C.A., Burridge, K. J. Cell. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Microfilament-organizing centers in areas of cell contact: cytoskeletal interactions during cell attachment and locomotion. Geiger, B., Avnur, Z., Rinnerthaler, G., Hinssen, H., Small, V.J. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. An intramolecular association between the head and tail domains of vinculin modulates talin binding. Johnson, R.P., Craig, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Integrin on developing and adult skeletal muscle. Bozyczko, D., Decker, C., Muschler, J., Horwitz, A.F. Exp. Cell Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Further characterisation of the talin-binding site in the cytoskeletal protein vinculin. Gilmore, A.P., Jackson, P., Waites, G.T., Critchley, D.R. J. Cell. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Partial cleavage mapping of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin. Antibody and talin binding sites. Kilic, F., Ball, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
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