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Gene Review

jar  -  jaguar

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 95F, 95F MHC, CG5695, Dm 95F, Dm95F, ...
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Disease relevance of jar


Psychiatry related information on jar


High impact information on jar

  • Altered patterns of beta 3-tubulin and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the mutants indicate a role for the neurogenic genes in development of most visceral and somatic muscles [3].
  • Myosin VI, unlike almost all other myosins, moves toward the minus end of actin filaments and functions in a variety of intracellular processes such as vesicular membrane traffic, cell migration, and mitosis [4].
  • The absence of other alternative exons in the rod-coding region, aside from those shown previously to encode alternative carboxyl termini, demonstrates that the bulk of the myosin rod is not involved in the generation of isoform-specific properties of the MHC molecule [5].
  • As opposed to the null phenotype observed in the IFM, normal amounts of MHC accumulate in the leg muscles of three of these mutants, whereas the fourth mutant shows a 45% reduction in leg muscle MHC [6].
  • The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of each of these homozygous mutants fail to accumulate MHC, lack thick filaments, and do not display normal cylindrical myofibrils [6].

Biological context of jar


Anatomical context of jar


Associations of jar with chemical compounds

  • A clone of a fast isoform of myosin heavy chain (HC) gene was isolated from a cDNA1 expression library made from mRNA purified from the deep abdominal flexor muscle of the lobster, Homarus americanus [14].

Other interactions of jar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of jar

  • Further, myosin VI and Acam co-immunoprecipitate from the testis and interact in yeast two-hybrid assays [10].
  • In this study, in situ hybridization analysis has been used to examine the complexity and muscle specificity of MHC isoform expression in the fibrillar indirect flight muscle (IFM), the tubular direct flight muscles (DFM) and tubular tergal depressor of the trochanter muscle (TDT), and the visceral esophageal muscle in the adult thorax [17].
  • The quantity of MHC transcript was measured in embryos of various stages by single-strand RNA probe excess titration [18].
  • We report here on the cis-regulatory mechanisms that direct the processing of alternative exons in Mhc exon 11 in individual muscles using transgenic reporter constructs, RT-PCR and directed mutagenesis [19].
  • Video-intensified fluorescence timelapse microscopy, in combination with microinjections of antibodies directed against Drosophila 95F myosin, have revealed that this unconventional myosin of class VI is involved in the transport processes [20].


  1. Class VI unconventional myosin is required for spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Hicks, J.L., Deng, W.M., Rogat, A.D., Miller, K.G., Bownes, M. Mol. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The 95F unconventional myosin is required for proper organization of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. Mermall, V., Miller, K.G. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for the Drosophila neurogenic genes in mesoderm differentiation. Corbin, V., Michelson, A.M., Abmayr, S.M., Neel, V., Alcamo, E., Maniatis, T., Young, M.W. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties. Buss, F., Spudich, G., Kendrick-Jones, J. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Alternative myosin hinge regions are utilized in a tissue-specific fashion that correlates with muscle contraction speed. Collier, V.L., Kronert, W.A., O'Donnell, P.T., Edwards, K.A., Bernstein, S.I. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of homozygous-viable Drosophila melanogaster muscle mutants indicate there is a complex pattern of myosin heavy-chain isoform distribution. O'Donnell, P.T., Collier, V.L., Mogami, K., Bernstein, S.I. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Myosin VI is required for E-cadherin-mediated border cell migration. Geisbrecht, E.R., Montell, D.J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Asymmetric cell division: Miranda chauffeured by Jaguar? Tuxworth, R., Chia, W. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A class VI unconventional myosin is associated with a homologue of a microtubule-binding protein, cytoplasmic linker protein-170, in neurons and at the posterior pole of Drosophila embryos. Lantz, V.A., Miller, K.G. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Androcam is a tissue-specific light chain for myosin VI in the Drosophila testis. Frank, D.J., Martin, S.R., Gruender, B.N., Lee, Y.S., Simonette, R.A., Bayley, P.M., Miller, K.G., Beckingham, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Myosin VI stabilizes an actin network during Drosophila spermatid individualization. Noguchi, T., Lenartowska, M., Miller, K.G. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The mutant not enough muscles (nem) reveals reduction of the Drosophila embryonic muscle pattern. Burchard, S., Paululat, A., Hinz, U., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Myosin VI plays a role in cell-cell adhesion during epithelial morphogenesis. Millo, H., Leaper, K., Lazou, V., Bownes, M. Mech. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning of a crustacean myosin heavy chain isoform: exclusive expression in fast muscle. Cotton, J.L., Mykles, D.L. J. Exp. Zool. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. A role for myosin VI in actin dynamics at sites of membrane remodeling during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Rogat, A.D., Miller, K.G. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin. Hasson, T., Mooseker, M.S. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Myosin functional domains encoded by alternative exons are expressed in specific thoracic muscles of Drosophila. Hastings, G.A., Emerson, C.P. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of myosin heavy chain gene in the sea urchin: coregulation with muscle actin transcription in early development. Rose, S.J., Rosenberg, M.J., Britten, R.J., Davidson, E.H. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Splice-junction elements and intronic sequences regulate alternative splicing of the Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene transcript. Standiford, D.M., Davis, M.B., Sun, W., Emerson, C.P. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Drosophila unconventional myosin VI is involved in intra- and intercellular transport during oogenesis. Bohrmann, J. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
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