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Gene Review

Abl  -  Abl tyrosine kinase

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 4674, ABL, ABL-1, Abl1, AblK, ...
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Disease relevance of Abl


High impact information on Abl


Biological context of Abl


Anatomical context of Abl


Associations of Abl with chemical compounds

  • Two novel dosage-sensitive modifiers of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) mutant phenotype have been identified [11].
  • Mutations in Abl and trio dominantly enhance fra and Netrin mutant CNS phenotypes, and fra;Abl and fra;trio double mutants display a dramatic loss of axons in a majority of commissures [8].
  • We report that the proline-rich region of Ena is responsible for this interaction as well as for mediating binding to the src homology 3 domain of the Abelson tyrosine kinase [12].
  • Drosophila Enabled, previously identified as a suppressor of the abl mutant phenotype and substrate for Drosophila Abl kinase, had markedly increased phosphotyrosine levels in Bcr-Abl expressing Drosophila, indicating that it is a substrate for Bcr-Abl as well [13].
  • The complete coding sequence of arg defines the Abelson subfamily of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases [14].

Physical interactions of Abl


Enzymatic interactions of Abl

  • We conclude that a critical function of Drosophila Abl is to phosphorylate and negatively regulate ena protein during neural development [16].

Regulatory relationships of Abl

  • Heterozygous null alleles of nrt dominantly enhance the Abl mutant phenotype, also affecting axon pathfinding [11].
  • Modulation of Abi protein levels may be an important mechanism for regulating the level of Abl kinase activity in the cell [17].
  • The fax gene encodes a novel 47-kD protein expressed in a developmental pattern similar to that of Abl in the embryonic mesoderm and axons of the central nervous system [18].
  • Our genetic studies also showed that abl mutations repressed Abeta42-induced Cdk5 activity and neurodegeneration in Drosophila eyes [19].

Other interactions of Abl

  • Genetic screens for dominant second-site mutations that suppress the lethality of Abl mutations in Drosophila identified alleles of only one gene, enabled (ena) [16].
  • Drosophila abelson interacting protein (dAbi) is a positive regulator of abelson tyrosine kinase activity [17].
  • We now demonstrate that the Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase functions in the intersegmental nerve b (ISNb) motor choice point pathway as an antagonist of the RPTP Dlar [9].
  • Activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abelson (Abl) contributes to the development of leukemia, but the complex roles of Abl in normal development are not fully understood [10].
  • Genetic interactions between capt and slit support a model where Capt and Abl collaborate as part of the repellent response [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Abl

  • These observations identify an important morphogenetic role for Abl and suggest a conserved mechanism for this kinase during apical cell constriction [21].


  1. Conservation of function of Drosophila melanogaster abl and murine v-abl proteins in transformation of mammalian cells. Holland, G.D., Henkemeyer, M.J., Kaehler, D.A., Hoffmann, F.M., Risser, R. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Can clues to the molecular defects in chronic myelogenous leukemia come from genetic studies on the Abelson tyrosine kinase in fruit flies? Comer, A.R., Liebl, E.C., Hoffmann, F.M. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Repulsive axon guidance: Abelson and Enabled play opposing roles downstream of the roundabout receptor. Bashaw, G.J., Kidd, T., Murray, D., Pawson, T., Goodman, C.S. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic analysis of a Drosophila neural cell adhesion molecule: interaction of fasciclin I and Abelson tyrosine kinase mutations. Elkins, T., Zinn, K., McAllister, L., Hoffmann, F.M., Goodman, C.S. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila abl tyrosine kinase in embryonic CNS axons: a role in axonogenesis is revealed through dosage-sensitive interactions with disabled. Gertler, F.B., Bennett, R.L., Clark, M.J., Hoffmann, F.M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila Abelson proto-oncogene homolog: identification of mutant alleles that have pleiotropic effects late in development. Henkemeyer, M.J., Gertler, F.B., Goodman, W., Hoffmann, F.M. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Dosage-sensitive, reciprocal genetic interactions between the Abl tyrosine kinase and the putative GEF trio reveal trio's role in axon pathfinding. Liebl, E.C., Forsthoefel, D.J., Franco, L.S., Sample, S.H., Hess, J.E., Cowger, J.A., Chandler, M.P., Shupert, A.M., Seeger, M.A. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The Abelson tyrosine kinase, the Trio GEF and Enabled interact with the Netrin receptor Frazzled in Drosophila. Forsthoefel, D.J., Liebl, E.C., Kolodziej, P.A., Seeger, M.A. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The tyrosine kinase Abl and its substrate enabled collaborate with the receptor phosphatase Dlar to control motor axon guidance. Wills, Z., Bateman, J., Korey, C.A., Comer, A., Van Vactor, D. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Abelson kinase regulates epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Grevengoed, E.E., Loureiro, J.J., Jesse, T.L., Peifer, M. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Interactions between the secreted protein Amalgam, its transmembrane receptor Neurotactin and the Abelson tyrosine kinase affect axon pathfinding. Liebl, E.C., Rowe, R.G., Forsthoefel, D.J., Stammler, A.L., Schmidt, E.R., Turski, M., Seeger, M.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of profilin and src homology 3 domains as binding partners for Drosophila enabled. Ahern-Djamali, S.M., Bachmann, C., Hua, P., Reddy, S.K., Kastenmeier, A.S., Walter, U., Hoffmann, F.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Dominant effects of the bcr-abl oncogene on Drosophila morphogenesis. Fogerty, F.J., Juang, J.L., Petersen, J., Clark, M.J., Hoffmann, F.M., Mosher, D.F. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The complete coding sequence of arg defines the Abelson subfamily of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Kruh, G.D., Perego, R., Miki, T., Aaronson, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Notch steers Drosophila ISNb motor axons by regulating the Abl signaling pathway. Crowner, D., Le Gall, M., Gates, M.A., Giniger, E. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. enabled, a dosage-sensitive suppressor of mutations in the Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase, encodes an Abl substrate with SH3 domain-binding properties. Gertler, F.B., Comer, A.R., Juang, J.L., Ahern, S.M., Clark, M.J., Liebl, E.C., Hoffmann, F.M. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Drosophila abelson interacting protein (dAbi) is a positive regulator of abelson tyrosine kinase activity. Juang, J.L., Hoffmann, F.M. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Genetic interactions between the Drosophila Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase and failed axon connections (fax), a novel protein in axon bundles. Hill, K.K., Bedian, V., Juang, J.L., Hoffmann, F.M. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Abl deregulates Cdk5 kinase activity and subcellular localization in Drosophila neurodegeneration. Lin, H., Lin, T.Y., Juang, J.L. Cell Death Differ. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. A Drosophila homolog of cyclase-associated proteins collaborates with the Abl tyrosine kinase to control midline axon pathfinding. Wills, Z., Emerson, M., Rusch, J., Bikoff, J., Baum, B., Perrimon, N., Van Vactor, D. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Abelson kinase (Abl) and RhoGEF2 regulate actin organization during cell constriction in Drosophila. Fox, D.T., Peifer, M. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
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