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Gene Review

NIT1  -  nitrilase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Nitrilase homolog 1
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Disease relevance of NIT1

  • Cytokine-induced DNA fragmentation preceded cell lysis in islet beta-cell lines (RINm5F, rat insulinoma cells; and NIT-1, NOD/Lt mouse transgenic beta cells), whereas in non-islet cell lines (GH-3, rat pituitary; and PC-12, rat adrenal) the cytokines induced cell lysis and no or late DNA fragmentation [1].
  • Biocatalytic enantioselective hydrolysis of beta-hydroxy nitriles to corresponding (S)-enriched beta-hydroxy carboxylic acids has been achieved for the first time by an isolated nitrilase bll6402 from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 [2].
  • A novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, of Alcaligenes faecalis JM3. Purification and characterization [3].
  • Purification and properties of an unusual nitrilase from Nocardia N.C.I.B. 11216 [4].
  • The attempted conversion of the 2-acetoxynitriles to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding 2-acetoxycarboxylic acids was finally achieved by using either a recombinant E. coli strain that highly overexpressed the nitrilase gene from the pseudomonad or the purified enzyme derived from this strain [5].

High impact information on NIT1


Chemical compound and disease context of NIT1


Biological context of NIT1

  • Enzyme stabilizer DTT catalyzes nitrilase analogue hydrolysis of nitriles [13].
  • This is in contrast to NIT-1 cells which failed to display significant reduction in H2-CMX-Ros retention after anoikis induction [14].
  • A fragment of the extra DNA was inserted into pUC19 together with the F. oxysporum nit1 gene, resulting in plasmid pFNit-Lam [15].
  • The resulting strains, devoid of antibiotic-resistance genes, were shown to achieve high productivity of nitrilase and thermostable alpha-amylase equal to that of the former antibiotic-resistant production host [16].
  • In order to suppress unwanted side-reactions, biotransformations were performed with recombinant Escherichia coli strains that heterologously expressed nitrilase activities originating from Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, or Synechocystis strains [5].

Anatomical context of NIT1

  • The mitochondria-specific dyes, TMRE, H2-CMX-Ros and MTR580 were determined for their suitability to measure mitochondrial potential changes of the T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and insulin-secreting beta cell line NIT-1 during apoptosis [14].
  • Viability of the HEP G2ins/g cells was similar to that of other liver cell lines/primary cells which were more resistant to the cytokines than the beta-cell line NIT-1 [17].
  • No MEN1 gene mutations were identified in endocrine islet tumor cell lines RIN 5AH (rat) and NIT-1 (mouse) as compared to wild type cDNA [18].

Associations of NIT1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of NIT1

  • The aim of this study was to examine whether enhanced expression of Gpx-1 and/or CuZn SOD protected NIT-1 mouse insulinoma cells from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NIT1

  • The methods were also compared under optimal conditions for their efficiency of nitrilase release and extent of cell disruption, and enzyme release were visualized under a differential interference contrast microscope (DIC) and SDS-PAGE, respectively [23].


  1. DNA fragmentation is an early event in cytokine-induced islet beta-cell destruction. Rabinovitch, A., Suarez-Pinzon, W.L., Shi, Y., Morgan, A.R., Bleackley, R.C. Diabetologia (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Unexpected Stereorecognition in Nitrilase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of beta-Hydroxy Nitriles. Kamila, S., Zhu, D., Biehl, E.R., Hua, L. Org. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, of Alcaligenes faecalis JM3. Purification and characterization. Nagasawa, T., Mauger, J., Yamada, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Purification and properties of an unusual nitrilase from Nocardia N.C.I.B. 11216. Harper, D.B. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Conversion of aliphatic 2-acetoxynitriles by nitrile-hydrolysing bacteria. Heinemann, U., Kiziak, C., Zibek, S., Layh, N., Schmidt, M., Griengl, H., Stolz, A. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production. Welsh, N., Bendtzen, K., Welsh, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Creation of a productive, highly enantioselective nitrilase through gene site saturation mutagenesis (GSSM). DeSantis, G., Wong, K., Farwell, B., Chatman, K., Zhu, Z., Tomlinson, G., Huang, H., Tan, X., Bibbs, L., Chen, P., Kretz, K., Burk, M.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytokine-induced apoptotic cell death in a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line: inhibition by Bcl-2. Iwahashi, H., Hanafusa, T., Eguchi, Y., Nakajima, H., Miyagawa, J., Itoh, N., Tomita, K., Namba, M., Kuwajima, M., Noguchi, T., Tsujimoto, Y., Matsuzawa, Y. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Nuclear factor-kappaB translocation mediates double-stranded ribonucleic acid-induced NIT-1 beta-cell apoptosis and up-regulates caspase-12 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ligand (TRAIL). Robbins, M.A., Maksumova, L., Pocock, E., Chantler, J.K. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Nocardia globerula NHB-2: a versatile nitrile-degrading organism. Bhalla, T.C., Kumar, H. Can. J. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Stereoselective nitrile hydrolysis by immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst. Kaul, P., Banerjee, A., Banerjee, U.C. Biomacromolecules (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of a nitrilase from Nocardia sp. (Rhodochrous group) N.C.I.B. 11215, using p-hydroxybenzonitrile as sole carbon source. Harper, D.B. Int. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Enzyme stabilizer DTT catalyzes nitrilase analogue hydrolysis of nitriles. Winkler, M., Glieder, A., Klempier, N. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Flow cytometric determination of mitochondrial membrane potential changes during apoptosis of T lymphocytic and pancreatic beta cell lines: comparison of tetramethylrhodamineethylester (TMRE), chloromethyl-X-rosamine (H2-CMX-Ros) and MitoTracker Red 580 (MTR580). Jayaraman, S. J. Immunol. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. A homologous and self-replicating system for efficient transformation of Fusarium oxysporum. Garcia-Pedrajas, M.D., Roncero, M.I. Curr. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Auxotrophic markers pyrF and proC can replace antibiotic markers on protein production plasmids in high-cell-density Pseudomonas fluorescens fermentation. Schneider, J.C., Jenings, A.F., Mun, D.M., McGovern, P.M., Chew, L.C. Biotechnol. Prog. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Susceptibility of insulin-secreting hepatocytes to the toxicity of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tabiin, M.T., Tuch, B.E., Bai, L., Han, X.G., Simpson, A.M. J. Autoimmun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Primary structure, gene expression and chromosomal mapping of rodent homologs of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. Karges, W., Maier, S., Wissmann, A., Dralle, H., Dosch, H.M., Boehm, B.O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Production of R-(-)-mandelic acid from mandelonitrile by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750. Yamamoto, K., Oishi, K., Fujimatsu, I., Komatsu, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. A high-throughput amenable colorimetric assay for enantioselective screening of nitrilase-producing microorganisms using pH sensitive indicators. Banerjee, A., Kaul, P., Sharma, R., Banerjee, U.C. Journal of biomolecular screening : the official journal of the Society for Biomolecular Screening. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The nitrilase family of CN hydrolysing enzymes - a comparative study. O'Reilly, C., Turner, P.D. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Enhanced expression of glutathione peroxidase protects islet beta cells from hypoxia-reoxygenation. Lepore, D.A., Shinkel, T.A., Fisicaro, N., Mysore, T.B., Johnson, L.E., d'Apice, A.J., Cowan, P.J. Xenotransplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Release of an enantioselective nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis MTCC 126: a comparative study. Singh, R., Banerjee, A., Kaul, P., Barse, B., Banerjee, U.C. Bioprocess and biosystems engineering. (2005) [Pubmed]
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