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MeSH Review

Gastrin-Secreting Cells

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Disease relevance of Gastrin-Secreting Cells

  • Our data suggest that neither G-cell hyperplasia nor alterations in somatostatin release explain postvagotomy hypergastrinemia in the dog [1].
  • Effect of Helicobacter pylori products and recombinant cytokines on gastrin release from cultured canine G cells [2].
  • It was found that, although eradication of the H. pylori infection results in a dramatic reduction in stimulated gastrin secretion, it is not associated with a change in the numbers of antral G cells or D cells in patients with duodenal ulcer [3].
  • Certain cytokines released in H. pylori gastritis, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and specific products of H. pylori, such as ammonia, release gastrin from G cells and might be responsible [4].
  • Intragastric balloons causing gastric hypertrophy, G-cell hyperplasia, and raised serum gastrin levels in rats [5].

High impact information on Gastrin-Secreting Cells

  • Percutaneous transhepatic venous sampling of gastrin: value in sporadic and familial islet-cell tumors and G-cell hyperfunction [6].
  • Gastric acid exerts a feedback inhibition on the secretion of gastrin from antral G cells [7].
  • The aim of this study was to examine whether the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 8 (IL-8), which are produced in the gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori-induced peptic disease or H. pylori products, can stimulate gastrin release from isolated cultured canine G cells [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 stimulated gastrin release from isolated G cells, and the effect was potentiated by H. pylori products [2].
  • We speculate that G cells express type I IL-1 receptors and TNF P55 but not TNF P75 receptors [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gastrin-Secreting Cells


Biological context of Gastrin-Secreting Cells


Anatomical context of Gastrin-Secreting Cells


Associations of Gastrin-Secreting Cells with chemical compounds

  • Gastrin release from the antral gastrin-expressing cell (G cell) is regulated by bombesin and luminal factors [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first direct demonstration of GABA in gastrointestinal G cells [19].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The effects of capsaicin-induced changes in antral D- and G-cell secretion and acetylcholine discharge are due primarily to release of CGRP [24].
  • After PGE2 administration, no evidence of mucosal inflammation or atypia was observed, nor was there any evidence of ultrastructural changes in the overall appearance of the parietal and gastrin cells [25].
  • Chronic exogenous high dose adrenal cortical steroid administration to dogs resulted in a 137% increase in G-cell mass with an associated enhancement of peak serum gastrin levels [26].

Gene context of Gastrin-Secreting Cells

  • Bombesin dose-dependently increased gastrin secretion; this stimulatory effect on the G cell was significantly reduced after a 72-h starvation [27].
  • In a functional assay, using the fluorescent multidrug resistance protein 1 substrate 5-carboxyfluorescein, an increased efflux activity of HT29(col) cells was measured, as compared to the wild-type HT29 G(+) cells [28].
  • In normal tissues, VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in G cells and PP cells [29].
  • Conversely, duodenal G-cells process progastrin to gastrin tetratriacontapeptide (G34-NH(2)) with little processing at Lys(74)Lys(75) [30].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that RUNX3 may play a physiologic role in chief cells and G cells in gastric mucosa, and that suppression of RUNX3 expression in intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma of human stomach may be implicated in gastric carcinogenesis [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gastrin-Secreting Cells


  1. Hypergastrinemia develops within 24 hours of truncal vagotomy in dogs. Hollinshead, J.W., Debas, H.T., Yamada, T., Elashoff, J., Osadchey, B., Walsh, J.H. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori products and recombinant cytokines on gastrin release from cultured canine G cells. Beales, I., Blaser, M.J., Srinivasan, S., Calam, J., Pérez-Pérez, G.I., Yamada, T., Scheiman, J., Post, L., Del Valle, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Antral G-cell and D-cell numbers in Helicobacter pylori infection: effect of H. pylori eradication. Graham, D.Y., Lew, G.M., Lechago, J. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. How does Helicobacter pylori cause mucosal damage? Its effect on acid and gastrin physiology. Calam, J., Gibbons, A., Healey, Z.V., Bliss, P., Arebi, N. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Intragastric balloons causing gastric hypertrophy, G-cell hyperplasia, and raised serum gastrin levels in rats. Feurle, G.E., Tischbirek, K., Helmstaedter, V. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Percutaneous transhepatic venous sampling of gastrin: value in sporadic and familial islet-cell tumors and G-cell hyperfunction. Glowniak, J.V., Shapiro, B., Vinik, A.I., Glaser, B., Thompson, N.W., Cho, K.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Reciprocal regulation of antral gastrin and somatostatin gene expression by omeprazole-induced achlorhydria. Brand, S.J., Stone, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Gastrin secretion from primary cultures of rabbit antral G cells: stimulation by inflammatory cytokines. Weigert, N., Schaffer, K., Schusdziarra, V., Classen, M., Schepp, W. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Enprostil reduces G-cell hyperplasia and hypergastrinemia in duodenal ulcer. Jewell, L.D., Yacoub, W., Salkie, M.L., Sherbaniuk, R., Walker, K., Mahachai, V., Kirdeikis, P., Simpson, I., Zuk, L., Brunet, M.K. Clinical therapeutics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative effects of pirenzepine and cimetidine, alone and in combination, on 24-hour gastric acidity in duodenal ulcer disease. Mahachai, V., Reilly, P., Thomson, A.B. Clinical therapeutics. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanical, electrical, and biochemical effects of hypoxia and substrate removal on spontaneously active vascular smooth muscle. Hellstrand, P., Johansson, B., Norberg, K. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Omeprazole: long-term safety. Arnold, R., Koop, H. Digestion (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of cysteamine on gastric nerve fibers containing gastrin-releasing peptide in the rat. Shimoda, H., Takeno, S., Noguchi, T., Uchida, Y., Usui, T., Takeyama, M. J. Gastroenterol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. EGF receptor activation stimulates endogenous gastrin gene expression in canine G cells and human gastric cell cultures. Ford, M.G., Valle, J.D., Soroka, C.J., Merchant, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The secretory kinetics of the G cell in omeprazole-treated rats. Dockray, G.J., Hamer, C., Evans, D., Varro, A., Dimaline, R. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Gastrin secretion from human antral G cells in culture. Campos, R.V., Buchan, A.M., Meloche, R.M., Pederson, R.A., Kwok, Y.N., Coy, D.H. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Gastrin gene expression and regulation in rat islet cell lines. Brand, S.J., Wang, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Gastrin and the ultrastructure of G cells in the fasting rat. Mortensen, N.J., Morris, J.F., Owens, C. Gut (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Colocalization of gamma-aminobutyrate and gastrin in the rat antrum: an immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization study. Davanger, S., Hjelle, O.P., Babaie, E., Larsson, L.I., Hougaard, D., Storm-Mathisen, J., Ottersen, O.P. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Gastrin-producing cells in ectopic gastric mucosa of developmental and metaplastic origins. Dayal, Y., Wolfe, H.J. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in human gastric mucosa. Murayama, Y., Miyagawa, J., Higashiyama, S., Kondo, S., Yabu, M., Isozaki, K., Kayanoki, Y., Kanayama, S., Shinomura, Y., Taniguchi, N. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Could chronic peptic ulcers be localised areas of acid susceptibility generated by autoimmunity? Kirk, R.M. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Essential interaction of Egr-1 at an islet-specific response element for basal and gastrin-dependent glucagon gene transactivation in pancreatic alpha-cells. Leung-Theung-Long, S., Roulet, E., Clerc, P., Escrieut, C., Marchal-Victorion, S., Ritz-Laser, B., Philippe, J., Pradayrol, L., Seva, C., Fourmy, D., Dufresne, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Calcitonin gene-related peptide mediates capsaicin-induced neuroendocrine responses in rat antrum. Ren, J., Young, R.L., Lassiter, D.C., Harty, R.F. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of oral 15(R)-15-methyl prostaglandin E2 on human gastric mucosa. A light microscopic, cell kinetic, and ultrastructural study. Tytgat, G.N., Offerhaus, G.J., van Minnen, A.J., Everts, V., Hensen-Logmans, S.C., Samson, G. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Adrenal corticosteroids cause gastrin cell hyperplasia. Delaney, J.P., Michel, H.M., Bonsack, M.E., Eisenberg, M.M., Dunn, D.H. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of food deprivation on rat gastric somatostatin and gastrin release. Koop, H., Schwab, E., Arnold, R., Creutzfeldt, W. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential expression of sphingolipids in MRP1 overexpressing HT29 cells. Kok, J.W., Veldman, R.J., Klappe, K., Koning, H., Filipeanu, C.M., Müller, M. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in digestive endocrine tumors: correlation with microvessel density and clinicopathologic features. La Rosa, S., Uccella, S., Finzi, G., Albarello, L., Sessa, F., Capella, C. Hum. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Diminished prohormone convertase 3 expression (PC1/PC3) inhibits progastrin post-translational processing. Sawada, M., Finniss, S., Dickinson, C.J. Regul. Pept. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of RUNX3 protein in human gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma. Osaki, M., Moriyama, M., Adachi, K., Nakada, C., Takeda, A., Inoue, Y., Adachi, H., Sato, K., Oshimura, M., Ito, H. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Chronic gastritis in the hypochlorhydric gastrin-deficient mouse progresses to adenocarcinoma. Zavros, Y., Eaton, K.A., Kang, W., Rathinavelu, S., Katukuri, V., Kao, J.Y., Samuelson, L.C., Merchant, J.L. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Release of transgenic human insulin from gastric g cells: a novel approach for the amelioration of diabetes. Lu, Y.C., Sternini, C., Rozengurt, E., Zhukova, E. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The significance of gastrin in the pathogenesis and therapy of peptic ulcer disease. Lamers, C.B. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Permeability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of Cr(III) complexes and some Cr(V) analogues in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. Dillon, C.T., Lay, P.A., Bonin, A.M., Cholewa, M., Legge, G.J. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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