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Gene Review

CNOT11  -  CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 11

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C2orf29, C40, CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 11
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Disease relevance of C2orf29

  • Arthrobacter nicotianae KCC B35 isolated from blue-green mats densely covering oil sediments along the Arabian Gulf coast grew well on C10 to C40 n-alkanes as sole sources of carbon and energy [1].

High impact information on C2orf29

  • The first reactions of C40 carotenoid biosynthesis proceed through common intermediates in all organisms, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway [2].
  • An oligonucleotide containing the SAA element is specifically bound by nuclear proteins derived from rat PC12 cells, consistently forming four complexes designated C25, C30, C35 and C40 in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) [3].
  • Investigation of the biochemical properties of immature rice endosperm using [14C]-labelled substrates revealed the presence of geranyl geranyl diphosphate, the C20 general isoprenoid precursor necessary for C40 carotenoid biosynthesis [4].
  • Barstar C40/82A, a mutant in which the two cysteine residues have been replaced by alanine, has been used as a pseudo wild-type in folding studies and in the crystal structure of the barnase:barstar C40/82A complex [5].
  • In the presence of 3 M urea, the double mutant of barstar in which Cys40 and Cys82 are both mutated to Ala (C40/82A) is completely and reversibly denatured at 278 K, a temperature that is accessible to NMR experiments [6].

Biological context of C2orf29

  • The addition of sodium azide, an electron-transport chain inhibitor, increased the intracellular accumulation of itraconazole only in the C26 strain, and not in the C40 or B2630 strains [7].
  • The triple mutant C40/82A P27A in which two cysteine residues and one trans proline were replaced by alanine was used as model system to investigate the kinetics and structural consequences of the trans/cis interconversion of Pro48 [8].
  • An abbreviated 2-hour AUC measurement (r2 = 0.78), using three sampling points (C0, C40 [MPA plasma concentration 40 min postdosing], C2), provided the best compromise between a monitoring tool that is theoretically ideal and practically feasible [9].
  • The enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain all-E-prenyl diphosphates, including octaprenyl (C40), nonaprenyl-(C45), and decaprenyl (C50) diphosphates, require polyprenyl carrier proteins that remove polyprenyl products from the active sites of the enzymes to maintain efficient turnovers of catalysis [10].
  • The frequencies of translocations were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid probes C40 and C55 mapping on chromosome 16p, and a chromosome 16 centromere-specific probe (pHUR195) [11].

Anatomical context of C2orf29

  • To this end, doves were injected intramuscularly with the mast cell degranulator, compound 48/80 (C40/80), followed by i.v. injection of Evans blue [12].
  • In plants, carotenoids are synthesized and normally sequestered in plastids as lipophilic C40 constituents [13].
  • DNA analysis of C24 and C40 CHO cells by PCR demonstrated the presence of the IGF-II construct in the transfected cells, presumably integrated into the chromosomal DNA [14].

Associations of C2orf29 with chemical compounds

  • These lipids are quite different from the usual fatty acid lipids of eukaryotes and prokaryotes: each molecule consists of two C40 omega-omega' biphytanyl residues (with 0 to 4 cyclopentane groups per residue), ether linked at both ends to two (variably substituted) glycerol or nonitol groups [15].
  • Replacement of cysteine ligands C40, C45, or C60 (FeSII) and of the C120 or C154 ligands to FeSI in the small subunit of Qox by serine led to decreased iron contents of the protein preparations [16].
  • A fluconazole-resistant strain C40 that expressed the benomyl resistance gene (CaMDR) also showed a low R6G efflux (0.16 +/- 0.06 nmol/10(8) cells) as did the sensitive strains [17].
  • [formula: see text] A chemical study of the hexane extracts of the Caribbean gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata (Verrill) collected in San Andrés Island, Colombia, has led to the isolation of an unprecedented heptacyclic C40 bis-diterpenoid, bisgersolanolide (1) [18].
  • In the dark, the carA mutant produces high levels of phytoene, the first C40 colourless carotenoid precursor; in the light, it produces the same carotenoids as the wild type [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C2orf29

  • As judged by the mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the binding patterns of the solubilized protein G molecules in Western blot experiments, the strains could be divided into three groups, represented by the group G streptococcal strains G148 and G43 and the group C streptococcal strain C40 [20].
  • As visualized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, affinity-purified antibodies directed against C40 recognize the outer layers, whereas antibodies against N15 interact with the equatorial portions of the GroEL double-ring [21].
  • The results showed shades I, B10, C40, A35 and A10 were those with the highest reliability and validity values [22].


  1. Uptake and utilization of n-octacosane and n-nonacosane by Arthrobacter nicotianae KCC B35. Radwan, S.S., Sorkhoh, N.A., Felzmann, H., El-Desouky, A.F. J. Appl. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Armstrong, G.A., Alberti, M., Hearst, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA binding and regulatory effects of transcription factors SP1 and USF at the rat amyloid precursor protein gene promoter. Hoffman, P.W., Chernak, J.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. Burkhardt, P.K., Beyer, P., Wünn, J., Klöti, A., Armstrong, G.A., Schledz, M., von Lintig, J., Potrykus, I. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. NMR 15N relaxation and structural studies reveal slow conformational exchange in barstar C40/82A. Wong, K.B., Fersht, A.R., Freund, S.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Cold denaturation of barstar: 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignment and characterisation of residual structure. Wong, K.B., Freund, S.M., Fersht, A.R. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Synergic effects of tactolimus and azole antifungal agents against azole-resistant Candida albican strains. Maesaki, S., Marichal, P., Hossain, M.A., Sanglard, D., Vanden Bossche, H., Kohno, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Real-time NMR studies on a transient folding intermediate of barstar. Killick, T.R., Freund, S.M., Fersht, A.R. Protein Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-term changes in mycophenolic acid exposure in combination with tacrolimus and corticosteroids are dose dependent and not reflected by trough plasma concentration: a prospective study in 100 de novo renal allograft recipients. Kuypers, D.R., Claes, K., Evenepoel, P., Maes, B., Coosemans, W., Pirenne, J., Vanrenterghem, Y. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Polyprenyl diphosphate synthases. Ogura, K., Koyama, T., Sagami, H. Subcell. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. High susceptibility of chromosome 16 to radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements in human lymphocytes under in vivo and in vitro exposure. Camparoto, M.L., Takahashi-Hyodo, S.A., Dauwerse, J.G., Natarajan, A.T., Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Brain mast cell degranulation regulates blood-brain barrier. Zhuang, X., Silverman, A.J., Silver, R. J. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxidative remodeling of plastid carotenoids. Camara, B., Bouvier, F. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of secreted recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Bekkari, H., Sekkat, D., Straczek, J., Hess, K., Belleville-Nabet, F., Nabet, P. J. Biotechnol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure and polymorphism of bipolar isopranyl ether lipids from archaebacteria. Gulik, A., Luzzati, V., De Rosa, M., Gambacorta, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Spectroscopic and Biochemical Studies on Protein Variants of Quinaldine 4-Oxidase: Role of E736 in Catalysis and Effects of Serine Ligands on the FeSI and FeSII Clusters. Kappl, R., Sielker, S., Ranguelova, K., Wegner, J., Parschat, K., H??ttermann, J., Fetzner, S. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Rhodamine 6G efflux for the detection of CDR1-overexpressing azole-resistant Candida albicans strains. Maesaki, S., Marichal, P., Vanden Bossche, H., Sanglard, D., Kohno, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of bisgersolanolide, a novel heptacyclic bis-diterpenoid from the gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata. Rodríguez, A.D., Shi, J.G. Org. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Accumulation of carotenoids in structural and regulatory mutants of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Martínez-Laborda, A., Balsalobre, J.M., Fontes, M., Murillo, F.J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Streptococcal protein G. Gene structure and protein binding properties. Sjöbring, U., Björck, L., Kastern, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Topology of the morphological domains of the chaperonin GroEL visualized by immuno-electron microscopy. Martin, J., Goldie, K.N., Engel, A., Hartl, F.U. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of individual shades on reliability and validity of observers in colour matching. Lagouvardos, P.E., Diamanti, H., Polyzois, G. The European journal of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
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