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Gene Review

AIF1  -  allograft inflammatory factor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AIF-1, Allograft inflammatory factor 1, Em:AF129756.17, G1, IBA1, ...
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Disease relevance of AIF1


Psychiatry related information on AIF1


High impact information on AIF1

  • Here we measure the relative propensity for beta-sheet formation of the twenty naturally occurring amino acids in a variant of the small, monomeric, beta-sheet-rich, IgG-binding domain from protein G. Amino-acid substitutions were made at a guest site on the solvent-exposed surface of the beta-sheet [6].
  • The high-resolution three-dimensional structure of a single immunoglobulin binding domain (B1, which comprises 56 residues including the NH2-terminal Met) of protein G from group G Streptococcus has been determined in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on the basis of 1058 experimental restraints [7].
  • Upregulation of AIF-1 in the setting of T cell activation suggests that it may play a role in macrophage activation and function [8].
  • Expression of the G1 cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells produced ALAD protein with little activity; the G2 cDNA produced the enzyme with approximately 50% normal activity [9].
  • Pulse-labeling studies demonstrated that the G1 enzyme had a normal half life, while the G2 enzyme had a markedly decreased half life [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of AIF1


Biological context of AIF1


Anatomical context of AIF1


Associations of AIF1 with chemical compounds

  • To characterize AIF-1 modulatory effects in primary human VSMCs, AIF-1-interacting proteins were identified by an AIF-1/glutathione S transferase fusion protein affinity assay [1].
  • Morphological analyses of hypoxic microglia using the microglial marker Iba1 revealed that treatment with MINO and DOXY caused a higher percentage of microglia to remain in a non-activated state [18].
  • A portion of the G1 glycoprotein of ELMC that is homologous to an important linear epitope of FC differs from the FC epitope by 10 of 31 residues [19].
  • Isolated rat hearts were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing either (in mM): glucose 11 (G1), glucose 22 (G2), or glucose 11 with either xylitol 11 (GX), mannitol 11 (GM), L-leucine 1 (GL), or L-glutamic acid 2 (GGA), respectively [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The effect of progesterone is seen only on proliferation in low-grade (G1 and G2) tumors [20].

Physical interactions of AIF1

  • These data indicate that AIF-1 binds and polymerizes F actin and also regulates Rac1 activity and VSMC migration [1].
  • Their effects are mediated via different protein G-coupled melanocortin (MC) receptors that are capable to bind one or more POMC-derived peptides [21].
  • Heavy and light chains of FVIII were detected in plasma-derived immune complexes extracted by using protein G Sepharose [22].
  • Immunoblot analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the binding protein was 150-160K, and the IL-1 alpha binding activity was removed and recovered from NHS by Protein-G affinity chromatography; indicating that the binding protein was IL-1 alpha-specific IgG [23].
  • The structure of a peptide antigen corresponding to the subtype P1.7 variant of the porin PorA from the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis was determined by solution of the X-ray crystal structure of the ternary complex of the peptide (ANGGASGQVK) in complex with a Fab fragment and a domain from streptococcal protein G to 1.95 A resolution [24].

Co-localisations of AIF1

  • AIF-1 colocalizes with Rac1, and AIF-1-transduced VSMCs show a constitutive and enhanced activation of Rac1, providing a mechanism for the increased migration [1].

Regulatory relationships of AIF1

  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that AIF-1 enhances VSMC growth by autocrine production of G-CSF, and AIF-1 expression may influence VSMC-inflammatory cell communication [25].
  • Inhibitory mutant Iba1 that suppresses M-CSF-induced membrane ruffling had lost the actin-cross-linking activity, and it inhibited the cross-linking activity of intact Iba1 [26].

Other interactions of AIF1

  • TNF, TNF receptor type 1, and allograft inflammatory factor-1 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes [16].
  • Further, it was unable to activate Rac1, or induce G-CSF expression to the degree as wild-type AIF-1 [15].
  • To determine if calcium binding plays a functional role in AIF-1 activity, a single site-specific mutation was made in the EF-hand calcium-binding domain to abrogate binding of calcium (AIF-1DeltaA), which was confirmed by calcium overlay [15].
  • In this report, we describe IRT-1, a novel mRNA transcript constitutively expressed in a number of human tissues, but expressed in human VSMCs only when they are stimulated with IFN-gamma [27].
  • This study suggests that IRT-1 is an IFN-gamma-inducible factor that may regulate the progression of vascular proliferative diseases [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AIF1


  1. AIF-1 is an actin-polymerizing and Rac1-activating protein that promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Autieri, M.V., Kelemen, S.E., Wendt, K.W. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Targeting of a short peptide derived from the cytoplasmic tail of the G1 membrane glycoprotein of Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae) to the Golgi complex. Andersson, A.M., Pettersson, R.F. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Structural homology of the central conserved region of the attachment protein G of respiratory syncytial virus with the fourth subdomain of 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor. Langedijk, J.P., de Groot, B.L., Berendsen, H.J., van Oirschot, J.T. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of an epitope common to genogroup 1 "norwalk-like viruses". Hale, A.D., Tanaka, T.N., Kitamoto, N., Ciarlet, M., Jiang, X., Takeda, N., Brown, D.W., Estes, M.K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The allograft inflammatory factor-1 in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brains. Deininger, M.H., Weinschenk, T., Meyermann, R., Schluesener, H.J. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Measurement of the beta-sheet-forming propensities of amino acids. Minor, D.L., Kim, P.S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel, highly stable fold of the immunoglobulin binding domain of streptococcal protein G. Gronenborn, A.M., Filpula, D.R., Essig, N.Z., Achari, A., Whitlow, M., Wingfield, P.T., Clore, G.M. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1: a novel macrophage factor identified in rat cardiac allografts with chronic rejection. Utans, U., Arceci, R.J., Yamashita, Y., Russell, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and expression of the defective genes from a patient with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase porphyria. Ishida, N., Fujita, H., Fukuda, Y., Noguchi, T., Doss, M., Kappas, A., Sassa, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of substrate manipulation on reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts. Wiese, S., Askanazi, J., Manner, T., Katz, D.P., Buttrick, P. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor-blocking immunoglobulins in serum from patients with Addison's disease: a reexamination. Wardle, C.A., Weetman, A.P., Mitchell, R., Peers, N., Robertson, W.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. NMR spectroscopic filtration of polypeptides and proteins in complex mixtures. Rajagopalan, S., Chow, C., Raghunathan, V., Fry, C.G., Cavagnero, S. J. Biomol. NMR (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 in kidneys: A novel molecular component of podocyte. Tsubata, Y., Sakatsume, M., Ogawa, A., Alchi, B., Kaneko, Y., Kuroda, T., Kawachi, H., Narita, I., Yamamoto, T., Gejyo, F. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus bind to heparin: purification of largely IgG-free virions from infected plasma by heparin chromatography. Zahn, A., Allain, J.P. J. Gen. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The ability of AIF-1 to activate human vascular smooth muscle cells is lost by mutations in the EF-hand calcium-binding region. Autieri, M.V., Chen, X. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. TNF, TNF receptor type 1, and allograft inflammatory factor-1 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. Nishimura, M., Obayashi, H., Mizuta, I., Hara, H., Adachi, T., Ohta, M., Tegoshi, H., Fukui, M., Hasegawa, G., Shigeta, H., Kitagawa, Y., Nakano, K., Kaji, R., Nakamura, N. Hum. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 in T lymphocytes: a role in T-lymphocyte activation and proliferative arteriopathies. Kelemen, S.E., Autieri, M.V. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Hypoxia-activated microglial mediators of neuronal survival are differentially regulated by tetracyclines. Lai, A.Y., Todd, K.G. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the M genomic segment of El Moro Canyon hantavirus: antigenic distinction from four corners hantavirus. Torrez-Martinez, N., Song, W., Hjelle, B. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Intratumoral effects of medroxy-progesterone on proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptors in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. Dahmoun, M., Boman, K., Cajander, S., Bäckström, T. Gynecol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells express the melanocortin receptor type 1 and produce increased levels of IL-8 upon stimulation with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Hartmeyer, M., Scholzen, T., Becher, E., Bhardwaj, R.S., Schwarz, T., Luger, T.A. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Circulating factor VIII immune complexes in patients with type 2 acquired hemophilia A and protection from activated protein C-mediated proteolysis. Nogami, K., Shima, M., Giddings, J.C., Hosokawa, K., Nagata, M., Kamisue, S., Suzuki, H., Shibata, M., Saenko, E.L., Tanaka, I., Yoshioka, A. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of high-affinity anti-IL-1 alpha autoantibodies in normal human serum as an interfering substance in a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-1 alpha. Mae, N., Liberato, D.J., Chizzonite, R., Satoh, H. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Crystal structure of an Fab fragment in complex with a meningococcal serosubtype antigen and a protein G domain. Derrick, J.P., Maiden, M.C., Feavers, I.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. AIF-1 expression modulates proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by autocrine expression of G-CSF. Chen, X., Kelemen, S.E., Autieri, M.V. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Iba1 is an actin-cross-linking protein in macrophages/microglia. Sasaki, Y., Ohsawa, K., Kanazawa, H., Kohsaka, S., Imai, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. IRT-1, a novel interferon-gamma-responsive transcript encoding a growth-suppressing basic leucine zipper protein. Autieri, M.V., Agrawal, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Allograft inflammatory factory-1. A cytokine-responsive macrophage molecule expressed in transplanted human hearts. Utans, U., Quist, W.C., McManus, B.M., Wilson, J.E., Arceci, R.J., Wallace, A.F., Russell, M.E. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
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