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Gene Review

RPS12  -  ribosomal protein S12

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 40S ribosomal protein S12, S12
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Disease relevance of RPS12


High impact information on RPS12

  • The functional rps12 protein must be imported from the cytoplasm since the deleted sequences of this gene are not found in the Oenothera mitochondrial genome [3].
  • Part of the well-conserved ribosomal protein gene rps12 also encoded downstream of nad3 in other plants, is lost in Oenothera mitochondria by recombination events [3].
  • A Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Facilitates the trans-Splicing of the Maize Chloroplast rps12 Pre-mRNA [4].
  • Microarray analysis of RNA that coimmunoprecipitates with PPR4 showed that PPR4 is associated in vivo with the first intron of the plastid rps12 pre-mRNA, a group II intron that is transcribed in segments and spliced in trans. ppr4 mutants were recovered through a reverse-genetic screen and shown to be defective for rps12 trans-splicing [4].
  • However, because only the edited translation products accumulate in mitochondrial ribosomes, the overall expression of rps12 is rendered coherent by the selection[5]

Biological context of RPS12

  • These results allow the distinct possibility of employing the ribosomal protein S12 gene as an early molecular diagnostic identifier for the screening of human cervical cancer and a potential target employed for cancer gene therapy trials [6].
  • To test whether multiple forms of RPS12 proteins are produced in petunia mitochondria as a result of partial editing, we probed mitochondrial proteins with specific antibodies against edited and unedited forms of a 13-amino-acid RPS12 peptide spanning two amino acids affected by RNA editing [7].
  • During evolution the maize mitochondrial ribosomal protein subunit 12 (rps12) gene recombined with intron 1 of the ribosomal protein subunit 3 (rps3) gene and a region of the S1-like sequence of the 2.3 kb plasmid [8].
  • These recombinations created a second copy of an internal portion of the rps12 gene, known as rps12b, which includes the first four editing sites of rps12 transcripts [8].
  • Instead, P(0) is an artifact of cross-amplification caused by a pseudogene of the highly expressed ribosomal protein S12 gene Rps12 [9].

Anatomical context of RPS12

  • Moreover, we show that RPS12 proteins recognized by both edited-specific and unedited-specific antibodies are present in a petunia mitochondrial ribosome fraction [7].

Associations of RPS12 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of RPS12


  1. High-frequency gene replacement in cyanobacteria using a heterologous rps12 gene. Takahama, K., Matsuoka, M., Nagahama, K., Ogawa, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Mitochondrial gene organization and expression in petunia male fertile and sterile plants. Hanson, M.R., Wilson, R.K., Bentolila, S., Köhler, R.H., Chen, H.C. J. Hered. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcripts of the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene are differentially edited in Oenothera mitochondria. Schuster, W., Wissinger, B., Unseld, M., Brennicke, A. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. A Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Facilitates the trans-Splicing of the Maize Chloroplast rps12 Pre-mRNA. Schmitz-Linneweber, C., Williams-Carrier, R.E., Williams-Voelker, P.M., Kroeger, T.S., Vichas, A., Barkan, A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Incomplete editing of rps12 transcripts results in the synthesis of polymorphic polypeptides in plant mitochondria. Phreaner, C.G., Williams, M.A., Mulligan, R.M. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of molecular markers for the early detection of human squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cheng, Q., Lau, W.M., Chew, S.H., Ho, T.H., Tay, S.K., Hui, K.M. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Protein polymorphism generated by differential RNA editing of a plant mitochondrial rps12 gene. Lu, B., Wilson, R.K., Phreaner, C.G., Mulligan, R.M., Hanson, M.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Editing site recognition in plant mitochondria: the importance of 5'-flanking sequences. Williams, M.A., Kutcher, B.M., Mulligan, R.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Further examination of the Xist promoter-switch hypothesis in X inactivation: evidence against the existence and function of a P(0) promoter. Warshawsky, D., Stavropoulos, N., Lee, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Loss of a conserved 7-methylguanosine modification in 16S rRNA confers low-level streptomycin resistance in bacteria. Okamoto, S., Tamaru, A., Nakajima, C., Nishimura, K., Tanaka, Y., Tokuyama, S., Suzuki, Y., Ochi, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitochondrial transcripts are processed but are not edited normally in Trypanosoma equiperdum (ATCC 30019) which has kDNA sequence deletion and duplication. Shu, H.H., Stuart, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of the gene for mitoribosomal protein S12 is controlled in human cells at the levels of transcription, RNA splicing, and translation. Mariottini, P., Shah, Z.H., Toivonen, J.M., Bagni, C., Spelbrink, J.N., Amaldi, F., Jacobs, H.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the str operon genes from Spirulina platensis and their evolutionary relationship to those of other prokaryotes. Buttarelli, F.R., Calogero, R.A., Tiboni, O., Gualerzi, C.O., Pon, C.L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Guide RNAs and guide RNA genes in the cryptobiid kinetoplastid protozoan, Trypanoplasma borreli. Yasuhira, S., Simpson, L. RNA (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Involvement of two different urf-s related mitochondrial sequences in the molecular evolution of the CMS-specific S-Pcf locus in petunia. Yesodi, V., Izhar, S., Gidoni, D., Tabib, Y., Firon, N. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
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