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Gene Review

Rras2  -  related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2610016H24Rik, C86394, Ras-related protein R-Ras2, TC21
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Disease relevance of Rras2

  • Infection of Nf1-null MSCs with a dn(43N)R-Ras adenovirus (to inhibit both R-Ras and TC21/R-Ras2 activation) decreases migration by approximately 50% [1].
  • In an initial examination of 33 human tumor specimens, we observed a novel nine basepair three amino acids insertion at TC21 codon 24 in one human uterine leiomyosarcoma cell line, SK-UT-1 [2].
  • Like Ras, activated TC21 caused transformation of RIE-1 rat intestinal epithelial cells and terminal differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells [3].
  • We recently isolated a mutationally activated TC21 oncogene from a human ovarian carcinoma cell line [4].

High impact information on Rras2

  • We show that inhibition of Ral signaling blocks DNA synthesis in human tumor cell lines containing activating mutations in TC21, demonstrating for the first time that this pathway is required for the proliferation of human tumor cells [5].
  • In both cases, the effector domain region of TC21 is required since point mutations in this region can interfere with activation of downstream signaling [5].
  • TC21-induced alterations in cellular morphology in NIH 3T3 and PC12 cells are also PI-3K dependent [5].
  • We conclude that aberrant TC21 function may trigger cellular transformation via a signal transduction pathway similar to that of oncogenic Ras and suggest that deregulated TC21 activity may contribute significantly to human oncogenesis [6].
  • Like Ras-transformed cells, NIH 3T3 cells expressing mutant TC21 proteins formed foci of morphologically transformed cells in monolayer cultures, proliferated in low serum, formed colonies in soft agar, and developed progressive tumors in nude mice [6].

Biological context of Rras2

  • Oncogenic Ras and activated forms of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 share similar abilities to alter cell proliferation [7].
  • Treatment with a PI3-kinase or MAP kinase inhibitor reduces Nf1-null Schwann cell migration, implicating these TC21 effectors in Schwann cell migration [1].
  • We have generated mutant forms of TC21 that possess amino acid substitutions analogous to those that activate Ras oncogenic potential [designated TC21(22V) and TC21(71L)] and compared the biological properties of TC21 with those of Ras proteins in NIH 3T3 and Rat-1 transformation assays [6].
  • Furthermore, mutant TC21 proteins also stimulated constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases as well as transcriptional activation from Ras-responsive promoter elements (Ets/AP-1 and NF-kappa B) [6].
  • Most of the proteins in the Ras-family proteins, including Ras, Rap and TC21, have been reported to be strong inhibitors of skeletal myogenesis [8].

Anatomical context of Rras2

  • We then examined if RalGDS, a RalA guanine nucleotide exchange factor, or PI3K are effectors for TC21-mediated signaling and cell proliferation in murine fibroblasts [7].
  • These data reveal a key role for neurofibromin regulation of TC21/R-Ras2 in Schwann cells, a cell type critical to NF1 tumor pathogenesis [1].
  • Finally, activated TC21 blocked serum starvation-induced differentiation of C2 myoblasts, whereas dominant negative TC21 greatly accelerated this differentiation process [3].
  • Thus, the inability of TC21 to bind to RBS1 may prevent it from promoting the translocation of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane [3].

Associations of Rras2 with chemical compounds

  • However, in contrast to Ras, we found previously that TC21 fails to activate the Raf-1 serine/threonine kinase [7].
  • Whereas Ras can interact with the two distinct Ras-binding sequences in NH2-terminus of Raf-1, designated RBS1 and Raf-Cys, TC21 could only bind Raf-Cys [3].

Physical interactions of Rras2

  • TC21/R-Ras2 preferentially couples to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and MAP kinase pathways [1].

Regulatory relationships of Rras2


Other interactions of Rras2


  1. Role of TC21/R-Ras2 in enhanced migration of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. Huang, Y., Rangwala, F., Fulkerson, P.C., Ling, B., Reed, E., Cox, A.D., Kamholz, J., Ratner, N. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel insertional mutation in the TC21 gene activates its transforming activity in a human leiomyosarcoma cell line. Huang, Y., Saez, R., Chao, L., Santos, E., Aaronson, S.A., Chan, A.M. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. TC21 and Ras share indistinguishable transforming and differentiating activities. Graham, S.M., Oldham, S.M., Martin, C.B., Drugan, J.K., Zohn, I.E., Campbell, S., Der, C.J. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Oncogenic activation of human R-ras by point mutations analogous to those of prototype H-ras oncogenes. Saez, R., Chan, A.M., Miki, T., Aaronson, S.A. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Activation of the Ral and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase signaling pathways by the ras-related protein TC21. Rosário, M., Paterson, H.F., Marshall, C.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Aberrant function of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 triggers malignant transformation. Graham, S.M., Cox, A.D., Drivas, G., Rush, M.G., D'Eustachio, P., Der, C.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not RalGDS, in TC21/R-Ras2-mediated transformation. Murphy, G.A., Graham, S.M., Morita, S., Reks, S.E., Rogers-Graham, K., Vojtek, A., Kelley, G.G., Der, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Positive regulation of skeletal myogenesis by R-Ras. Suzuki, J., Kaziro, Y., Koide, H. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
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