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Gene Review

SSR1  -  signal sequence receptor, alpha

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PSEC0262, SSR-alpha, Signal sequence receptor subunit alpha, TRAP-alpha, TRAPA, ...
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Disease relevance of SSR1


High impact information on SSR1

  • Ca(2+) + A23187-induced K(+)-permeabilization of SS R1 fractions revealed a similar fraction of cal-res cells, whose (86)Rb uptake showed both high Na/K pump and leak fluxes. val-res/cal-res RBCs might represent either a distinct erythroid genealogy, or an "end-stage" of normal and SS RBCs [6].
  • All tumors except one from patients pretreated with octreotide (3 days to 3.8 years) were SS receptor positive [2].
  • The majority of the eight SS receptor-negative carcinoids were mainly bronchial carcinoids (n = 5), usually poorly differentiated [2].
  • Surprisingly, pgp25 (SSR alpha) also bound Ca2+ although gp25H (SSR beta) and gp25L did not [7].
  • SSR alpha and associated calnexin are major calcium binding proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of SSR1


Biological context of SSR1

  • These results provide further evidence for a functional differentiation of rough and smooth ER and for a role of SSR in protein translocation across the ER membrane [9].
  • Both were shown to be phosphorylation sites; Y775 was only marginally phosphorylated in cells expressing the wild-type ss-receptor, whereas Y778 was phosphorylated at higher stoichiometry [10].
  • 1) As this tumor displayed a high immunoreactivity for sst3 and the cultured tumor cells expressed the sst3 mRNA only, this SSR may be the subtype involved in the inhibition of epithelial tumor cell proliferation by octreotide in vitro [11].
  • Scarce information is available so far on the SS-R subtype expression pattern as well as on the second messenger systems linked to SS-R activation in human lymphoid cells [12].
  • It is concluded that (i) the SSR holds; (ii) dichoptic (and monocular) edges are seen at the horopter; (iii) the vergence fine tuning prevents superposition of dichoptic edges even if this causes a fixation disparity [13].

Anatomical context of SSR1


Associations of SSR1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of SSR1

  • The amplitude of the SSR generated by the second stimulus (SSR2) was expressed as a percentage of that generated by the first (SSR1), and compared between control subjects and patients for each ISI [20].

Other interactions of SSR1

  • The SSR amplitude recovery percentage, which was obtained by dividing the amplitude of SSR2 by the amplitude of SSR1, was significantly different on the cooled side [21].
  • There are five distinct SS receptor (SSTR) subtypes, namely SSTR1-5, which show different affinities for SS14 and SS28 [22].
  • However, not much is known with respect to the SS receptor subtype (sst) expression pattern and the expression of SS itself in the immune system [23].
  • Cortistatin (CST)-14, a neuropeptide with high structural homology with somatostatine (SS)-14, binds all SS receptor subtypes but also shows activities not shared by SS [24].
  • The receptors were specific for the respective peptide and of high affinity, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.90 nM for SS receptor and 0.87 nM for gastrin receptors [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SSR1


  1. In vitro autoradiographic and in vivo scintigraphic localization of somatostatin receptors in human lymphatic tissue. Reubi, J.C., Waser, B., Horisberger, U., Krenning, E., Lamberts, S.W., Gebbers, J.O., Gersbach, P., Laissue, J.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of somatostatin receptors in surgical and percutaneous needle biopsy samples of carcinoids and islet cell carcinomas. Reubi, J.C., Kvols, L.K., Waser, B., Nagorney, D.M., Heitz, P.U., Charboneau, J.W., Reading, C.C., Moertel, C. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Steroid hormone receptor expression in nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. Consistent expression of estrogen receptor beta. Montag, A.G., Tretiakova, M., Richardson, M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Receptor imaging of human diseases using radiolabeled peptides. Reubi, J.C., Lamberts, S.J., Krenning, E.P. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Loss of heterozygosity at the SS receptor type 5 locus in human GH- and TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Filopanti, M., Ballarè, E., Lania, A.G., Bondioni, S., Verga, U., Locatelli, M., Zavanone, L.M., Losa, M., Gelmini, S., Peri, A., Orlando, C., Beck-Peccoz, P., Spada, A. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and characterization of a newly recognized population of high-Na+, low-K+, low-density sickle and normal red cells. Bookchin, R.M., Etzion, Z., Sorette, M., Mohandas, N., Skepper, J.N., Lew, V.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. SSR alpha and associated calnexin are major calcium binding proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Wada, I., Rindress, D., Cameron, P.H., Ou, W.J., Doherty, J.J., Louvard, D., Bell, A.W., Dignard, D., Thomas, D.Y., Bergeron, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Altered adrenergic receptor density in myocardial hibernation in humans: A possible mechanism of depressed myocardial function. Shan, K., Bick, R.J., Poindexter, B.J., Nagueh, S.F., Shimoni, S., Verani, M.S., Keng, F., Reardon, M.J., Letsou, G.V., Howell, J.F., Zoghbi, W.A. Circulation (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Segregation of the signal sequence receptor protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Vogel, F., Hartmann, E., Görlich, D., Rapoport, T.A. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced actin rearrangement is deregulated in cells expressing a mutant Y778F PDGF beta-receptor. Ruusala, A., Sundberg, C., Arvidsson, A.K., Rupp-Thuresson, E., Heldin, C.H., Claesson-Welsh, L. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Somatostatin receptor subtypes in human thymoma and inhibition of cell proliferation by octreotide in vitro. Ferone, D., van Hagen, M.P., Kwekkeboom, D.J., van Koetsveld, P.M., Mooy, D.M., Lichtenauer-Kaligis, E., Schönbrunn, A., Colao, A., Lamberts, S.W., Hofland, L.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional role of somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine and immune cells. Hofland, L.J., van Hagen, P.M., Lamberts, S.W. Ann. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Depth from dichoptic edges depends on vergence tuning. Krol, J.D., van de Grind, W.A. Perception. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro characterization of somatostatin receptors in the human thymus and effects of somatostatin and octreotide on cultured thymic epithelial cells. Ferone, D., van Hagen, P.M., van Koetsveld, P.M., Zuijderwijk, J., Mooy, D.M., Lichtenauer-Kaligis, E.G., Colao, A., Bogers, A.J., Lombardi, G., Lamberts, S.W., Hofland, L.J. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Somatostatin receptors in the thymus. Ferone, D., van Hagen, P.M., Colao, A., Annunziato, L., Lamberts, S.W., Hofland, L.J. Ann. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Medium-associated luteinization expressed as progesterone release in granulosa-luteal cells isolated from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Holst, N., Bertheussen, K., Burhol, P.G., Forsdahl, F. Hum. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. The relationship between somatostatin, epidermal growth factor, and steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer. Reubi, J.C., Torhorst, J. Cancer (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Specific intra-tissue responses to manganese in the floating lamina of Trapa natans L. Baldisserotto, C., Ferroni, L., Medici, V., Pagnoni, A., Pellizzari, M., Fasulo, M.P., Fagioli, F., Bonora, A., Pancaldi, S. Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Carbofuran residue in water, soil, and Trapa fruits, after field application. Dixit, B.S., Banerji, R. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Excitability recovery curve of the sympathetic skin response in healthy volunteers and patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. Manca, D., Valls-Solé, J., Callejas, M.A. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Local cold effect on the excitability recovery curve of the sympathetic skin response. Boz, C., Ozmenoglu, M., Alioglu, Z., Velioglu, S., Altunayoglu, V., Gazioglu, S. Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of human pancreatic islet insulin release by receptor-selective somatostatin analogs directed to somatostatin receptor subtype 5. Zambre, Y., Ling, Z., Chen, M.C., Hou, X., Woon, C.W., Culler, M., Taylor, J.E., Coy, D.H., Van Schravendijk, C., Schuit, F., Pipeleers, D.G., Eizirik, D.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets. Lichtenauer-Kaligis, E.G., Dalm, V.A., Oomen, S.P., Mooij, D.M., van Hagen, P.M., Lamberts, S.W., Hofland, L.J. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of cortistatin-14 and somatostatin-14 on the endocrine response to hexarelin in humans. Benso, A., Gottero, C., Prodam, F., Gauna, C., Destefanis, S., Filtri, L., van der Lely, A.J., Deghenghi, R., Ghigo, E., Broglio, F. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of somatostatin and gastrin receptors on enterochromaffin-like cells from Mastomys gastric tumors. Reubi, J.C., Waser, B., Horisberger, U., Halter, F., Soroka, C.J., Kumar, R.R., Goldenring, J.R., Modlin, I.M. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of (111)In-labeled somatostatin analogues for tumor scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. de Jong, M., Breeman, W.A., Bakker, W.H., Kooij, P.P., Bernard, B.F., Hofland, L.J., Visser, T.J., Srinivasan, A., Schmidt, M.A., Erion, J.L., Bugaj, J.E., Mäcke, H.R., Krenning, E.P. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide binding and somatostatin receptor subtypes in thyroid tumors. Forssell-Aronsson, E.B., Nilsson, O., Bejegård, S.A., Kölby, L., Bernhardt, P., Mölne, J., Hashemi, S.H., Wängberg, B., Tisell, L.E., Ahlman, H. J. Nucl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo and in vitro expression of somatostatin receptors in two human thymomas with similar clinical presentation and different histological features. Ferone, D., Kwekkeboom, D.J., Pivonello, R., Bogers ADColao, A., Lamberts, S.W., van Hagen, P.M., Hofland, L.J. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
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