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MeSH Review

Carcinoid Tumor

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Disease relevance of Carcinoid Tumor


Psychiatry related information on Carcinoid Tumor

  • Neurokinin A in carcinoid tumours has an N-terminal heterogeneity; this multiplicity constitutes a further support for the hypothesis that carcinoid tumours produce a number of tachykinins which may be present in different relative amounts in individual patients and may contribute to the individual differences in symptomatology [6].
  • Total 5HTOL levels in control samples ranged between 98-301 nM, in samples collected following ingestion of bananas, a food rich in serotonin, between 450-3292 nM, following alcohol consumption between 863-13326 nM, and in samples obtained from patients with serotonin producing carcinoid tumors between 1695-3793 nM [7].
  • In two inpatients admitted for a medical evaluation for pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome, respectively, a positive response to the double-blind administration of CO2/O2 or room air was consistent with a diagnosis of panic disorder by psychiatric history [8].

High impact information on Carcinoid Tumor


Chemical compound and disease context of Carcinoid Tumor


Biological context of Carcinoid Tumor


Anatomical context of Carcinoid Tumor


Gene context of Carcinoid Tumor

  • Dexamethasone (Dex) decreased plasma ACTH levels in all patients with Cushing's disease and in three patients with ectopic ACTH-producing bronchial carcinoid [15].
  • In a carcinoid, SSTR1 and SSTR4 mRNAs were detected [4].
  • In patients with the carcinoid syndrome, SMS 201-995 effectively reduces diarrhea, is the best available drug for treatment of carcinoid flush (effective in approximately 90% of cases), and is useful in treating carcinoid crisis [28].
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that results in parathyroid, anterior pituitary, and pancreatic and duodenal endocrine tumors as well as foregut carcinoids in affected patients [29].
  • In this report, 22 midgut carcinoids and 5 endocrine pancreatic tumors were examined for the presence of PDGF with a monoclonal antibody raised against a peptide corresponding to a part of the B-chain of PDGF which reacts strongly with the B-chain and weakly with the A-chain [30].
  • CgA is highly expressed in microdissected cells from carcinoid metastases, whereas it is not expressed in normal hepatocytes [31].
  • The analysis showed that 45.8% of typical carcinoid and 28.6% of atypical carcinoid tumors express EGFR, 100% of the tumors lack expression of ErbB2, and 100% have moderate to intense staining for ErbB3 and ErbB4 [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carcinoid Tumor


  1. Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production by a carcinoid tumor not producing serotonin. Santelices, R., Bobadilla, E., Pineda, G., Hirsh, L., Silva, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Somatostatin-receptor imaging in the localization of endocrine tumors. Lamberts, S.W., Bakker, W.H., Reubi, J.C., Krenning, E.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome. de Keyzer, Y., Lenne, F., Auzan, C., Jégou, S., René, P., Vaudry, H., Kuhn, J.M., Luton, J.P., Clauser, E., Bertagna, X. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of somatostatin receptor subtypes and an implication for the efficacy of somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in treatment of human endocrine tumors. Kubota, A., Yamada, Y., Kagimoto, S., Shimatsu, A., Imamura, M., Tsuda, K., Imura, H., Seino, S., Seino, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Development and characterization of a novel in vivo model of carcinoid syndrome. Jackson, L.N., Chen, L.A., Larson, S.D., Silva, S.R., Rychahou, P.G., Boor, P.J., Li, J., Defreitas, G., Stafford, W.L., Townsend, C.M., Evers, B.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of neurokinin A, neurokinin A(3-10) and neurokinin A(4-10) from a neutral water extract of a metastatic ileal carcinoid tumour. Theodorsson-Norheim, E., Jörnvall, H., Andersson, M., Norheim, I., Oberg, K., Jacobsson, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. 5-Hydroxytryptophol conjugation in man: influence of alcohol consumption and altered serotonin turnover. Helander, A., Beck, O., Boysen, L. Life Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The practical use of carbon dioxide-induced anxiety in the diagnosis and care of patients with panic disorder. Ware, M.R., Caton, D., DeVane, C.L. Annals of clinical psychiatry : official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of type II gastric carcinoid tumors with somatostatin analogues. Tomassetti, P., Migliori, M., Caletti, G.C., Fusaroli, P., Corinaldesi, R., Gullo, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Motor dysfunction of the small bowel and colon in patients with the carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea. von der Ohe, M.R., Camilleri, M., Kvols, L.K., Thomforde, G.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Serotonin depletion by fenfluramine in the carcinoid syndrome. Stahl, S.M., Levin, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Tamoxifen in carcinoid syndrome. Stathopoulos, G.P., Karvountzis, G.G., Yiotis, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Histamine antagonists and carcinoid flush. Pyles, J.D., Silberman, H.R., Feldman, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. The carcinoid flush. Provocation by pentagastrin and inhibition by somatostatin. Frölich, J.C., Bloomgarden, Z.T., Oates, J.A., McGuigan, J.E., Rabinowitz, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin, and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in adrenocorticotropin-producing tumors in vitro. Suda, T., Tozawa, F., Dobashi, I., Horiba, N., Ohmori, N., Yamakado, M., Yamada, M., Demura, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Differences between purified ectopic and normal alpha subnits of human glycoprotein hormones. Weintraub, B.D., Krauth, G., Rosen, S.W., Babson, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies of tryptophan and albumin metabolism in a patient with carcinoid syndrome, pellagra, and hypoproteinemia. Swain, C.P., Tavill, A.S., Neale, G. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Serotonin metabolism in patients with carcinoid tumors: incidence of 5-hydroxytryptophan-secreting tumors. Feldman, J.M. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of somatostatin on bronchial constriction in a patient with carcinoid syndrome. Klapdor, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential screening of a human chromosome 3 library identifies hepatocyte growth factor-like/macrophage-stimulating protein and its receptor in injured lung. Possible implications for neuroendocrine cell survival. Willett, C.G., Smith, D.I., Shridhar, V., Wang, M.H., Emanuel, R.L., Patidar, K., Graham, S.A., Zhang, F., Hatch, V., Sugarbaker, D.J., Sunday, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene locus is involved in the pathogenesis of type II gastric carcinoids. Debelenko, L.V., Emmert-Buck, M.R., Zhuang, Z., Epshteyn, E., Moskaluk, C.A., Jensen, R.T., Liotta, L.A., Lubensky, I.A. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Octreotide suppression test predicts beneficial outcome from antrectomy in a patient with gastric carcinoid tumor. Higham, A.D., Dimaline, R., Varro, A., Attwood, S., Armstrong, G., Dockray, G.J., Thompson, D.G. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. High activity of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in insulinomas and carcinoid and other tumors of the amine precursor uptake decarboxylation system. MacDonald, M.J., Warner, T.F., Mertz, R.J. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of malignant carcinoid tumors with recombinant interferon alfa-2b: development of neutralizing interferon antibodies and possible loss of antitumor activity. Oberg, K., Alm, G., Magnusson, A., Lundqvist, G., Theodorsson, E., Wide, L., Wilander, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy in primary breast cancer. van Eijck, C.H., Krenning, E.P., Bootsma, A., Oei, H.Y., van Pel, R., Lindemans, J., Jeekel, J., Reubi, J.C., Lamberts, S.W. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Partial gastric corpectomy results in hypergastrinemia and development of gastric enterochromaffinlike-cell carcinoids in the rat. Mattsson, H., Havu, N., Bräutigam, J., Carlsson, K., Lundell, L., Carlsson, E. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of various secretagogues and human carcinoid serum on lymph flow in the cat ileum. Granger, D.N., Cross, R., Barrowman, J.A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. NIH conference. Somatostatin and somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) in treatment of hormone-secreting tumors of the pituitary and gastrointestinal tract and non-neoplastic diseases of the gut. Gorden, P., Comi, R.J., Maton, P.N., Go, V.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Localization of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) gene based on tumor loss of heterozygosity analysis. Emmert-Buck, M.R., Lubensky, I.A., Dong, Q., Manickam, P., Guru, S.C., Kester, M.B., Olufemi, S.E., Agarwal, S., Burns, A.L., Spiegel, A.M., Collins, F.S., Marx, S.J., Zhuang, Z., Liotta, L.A., Chandrasekharappa, S.C., Debelenko, L.V. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. Chaudhry, A., Papanicolaou, V., Oberg, K., Heldin, C.H., Funa, K. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel chromogranin-A promoter-driven oncolytic adenovirus for midgut carcinoid therapy. Leja, J., Dzojic, H., Gustafson, E., Oberg, K., Giandomenico, V., Essand, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Rickman, O.B., Vohra, P.K., Sanyal, B., Vrana, J.A., Aubry, M.C., Wigle, D.A., Thomas, C.F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  33. Phase II/III study of doxorubicin with fluorouracil compared with streptozocin with fluorouracil or dacarbazine in the treatment of advanced carcinoid tumors: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E1281. Sun, W., Lipsitz, S., Catalano, P., Mailliard, J.A., Haller, D.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. A comparison between the efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and that of in situ hybridization for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 messenger RNA to predict therapeutic outcome in carcinoid patients. Janson, E.T., Gobl, A., Kälkner, K.M., Oberg, K. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Gastrin-releasing peptide-related peptides in a human malignant lung carcinoid tumor. Roth, K.A., Evans, C.J., Weber, E., Barchas, J.D., Bostwick, D.G., Bensch, K.G. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Detection of somatostatin receptors in surgical and percutaneous needle biopsy samples of carcinoids and islet cell carcinomas. Reubi, J.C., Kvols, L.K., Waser, B., Nagorney, D.M., Heitz, P.U., Charboneau, J.W., Reading, C.C., Moertel, C. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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