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Gene Review

GAST  -  gastrin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GAS, Gastrin
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Disease relevance of GAST


Psychiatry related information on GAST


High impact information on GAST

  • Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors [10].
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that it is feasible to regenerate and expand the beta-cell mass by the application of hormones and growth factors like glucagon-like peptide-1, gastrin, epidermal growth factor, and others [11].
  • The conversion of inactive peptide precursors to their active forms takes place during transit along the secretory pathway and is only completed after sequestration in secretory granules. the processing of the gastrin precursor provides a useful model for studying prohormone processing [12].
  • Brief report: a duodenal gastrinoma in a patient with diarrhea and normal serum gastrin concentrations [13].
  • Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the presence of gastrin in all the duodenal tumors and in their lymph-node metastases [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of GAST


Biological context of GAST


Anatomical context of GAST


Associations of GAST with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GAST


Enzymatic interactions of GAST


Regulatory relationships of GAST


Other interactions of GAST

  • Postprandial Gs levels were also elevated, whereas VIP levels were markedly reduced in patients versus controls; these differences were most marked in stage II patients [35].
  • Hormone levels of patients and controls did not differ between the test meal situations, which indicated that some other component of the test meals might have been responsible for altered Prl and Gs levels [35].
  • After a 2-day incubation period, gastrin- and somatostatin-containing cells accounted for 15% and 5%, respectively, of the total adhered-cell population [20].
  • RESULTS: High concentrations of CCK-B-gastrin receptors were detected in the midglandular region of the human fundic mucosa [36].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of CCK-A receptors converts CCK-8 into a potent acid secretagogue and augments postprandial gastrin secretion [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAST


  1. Influence of gastrin on human astrocytic tumor cell proliferation. Camby, I., Salmon, I., Danguy, A., Pasteels, J.L., Brotchi, J., Martinez, J., Kiss, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Human gastrin: a Helicobacter pylori--specific growth factor. Chowers, M.Y., Keller, N., Tal, R., Barshack, I., Lang, R., Bar-Meir, S., Chowers, Y. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of growth of human gastric cancer by gastrin and glycine-extended progastrin. Iwase, K., Evers, B.M., Hellmich, M.R., Guo, Y.S., Higashide, S., Kim, H.J., Townsend, C.M. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Gastrin induces proliferation in Barrett's metaplasia through activation of the CCK2 receptor. Haigh, C.R., Attwood, S.E., Thompson, D.G., Jankowski, J.A., Kirton, C.M., Pritchard, D.M., Varro, A., Dimaline, R. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Potential regulators of feeding behavior in anorexia nervosa. Uhe, A.M., Szmukler, G.I., Collier, G.R., Hansky, J., O'Dea, K., Young, G.P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. A single amino acid of the cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor determines specificity for non-peptide antagonists. Beinborn, M., Lee, Y.M., McBride, E.W., Quinn, S.M., Kopin, A.S. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental expression of pancreatic gastrin and somatostatin in the sheep. Read, M., Shulkes, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Interactions of cholecystokinin (CCK-PZ) and gastrin on motor activity of isolated guinea-pig antrum and fundus. Gerner, T., Haffner, J.F. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of alcohol and alcoholic beverages on nonstimulated pancreatic secretion in humans. Hajnal, F., Flores, M.C., Valenzuela, J.E. Pancreas (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors. Dufresne, M., Seva, C., Fourmy, D. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. Bouwens, L., Rooman, I. Physiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Gastric endocrine cells: gene expression, processing, and targeting of active products. Dockray, G.J., Varro, A., Dimaline, R. Physiol. Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Brief report: a duodenal gastrinoma in a patient with diarrhea and normal serum gastrin concentrations. Zimmer, T., Stölzel, U., Bäder, M., Fett, U., Foss, H.D., Riecken, E.O., Rehfeld, J.F., Wiedenmann, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Gastrinomas in the duodenums of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Pipeleers-Marichal, M., Somers, G., Willems, G., Foulis, A., Imrie, C., Bishop, A.E., Polak, J.M., Häcki, W.H., Stamm, B., Heitz, P.U. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of COX-2 inhibition by rofecoxib on serum and tumor progastrin and gastrin levels and expression of PPARgamma and apoptosis-related proteins in gastric cancer patients. Konturek, P.C., Konturek, S.J., Bielanski, W., Kania, J., Zuchowicz, M., Hartwich, A., Rehfeld, J.F., Hahn, E.G. Dig. Dis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Gastrin and pentagastrin enhance the tumour proliferation of human stable cultured gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Szabó, I., Rumi, G., Bódis, B., Németh, P., Mózsik, G. J. Physiol. Paris (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Gastrin and the enterochromaffin-like cell: an acid update. Kidd, M., Modlin, I.M., Tang, L.H. Digestive surgery. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Gastric endocrine cell behavior in Zollinger-Ellison patients upon long-term potent antisecretory treatment. Lehy, T., Mignon, M., Cadiot, G., Elouaer-Blanc, L., Ruszniewski, P., Lewin, M.J., Bonfils, S. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Mechanism for increase of gastrin release by secretin in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Chiba, T., Yamatani, T., Yamaguchi, A., Morishita, T., Nakamura, A., Kadowaki, S., Fujita, T. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Gastrin secretion from human antral G cells in culture. Campos, R.V., Buchan, A.M., Meloche, R.M., Pederson, R.A., Kwok, Y.N., Coy, D.H. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Gastrin, CCK, signaling, and cancer. Rozengurt, E., Walsh, J.H. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Cholecystokinin receptors in human pancreas and gallbladder muscle: a comparative study. Tang, C., Biemond, I., Lamers, C.B. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Endocrine cells in human intestine: an immunocytochemical study. Sjölund, K., Sandén, G., Håkanson, R., Sundler, F. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Human pancreatic acinar cells lack functional responses to cholecystokinin and gastrin. Ji, B., Bi, Y., Simeone, D., Mortensen, R.M., Logsdon, C.D. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Valine-286 residue in the third intracellular loop of the cholecystokinin 2 receptor exerts a pivotal role in cholecystokinin 2 receptor mediated intracellular signal transduction in human colon cancer cells. Yu, H.G., Schäfer, H., Mergler, S., Müerköster, S., Cramer, T., Höcker, M., Herzig, K.H., Schmidt, W.E., Schmitz, F. Cell. Signal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Serotonin and gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in the larval retrocerebral complex of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala. Cantera, R. Cell Tissue Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum gastrin level and gastric somatostatin content and binding in long-term pyloromyotomized children. Barrios, V., Urrutia, M.J., Hernández, M., Lama, R., García-Novo, M.D., Hernanz, A., Arilla, E. Life Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. A specific gastrin receptor in human gastric mucosa. Tokunaga, T., Misumi, A., Akagi, M. Gastroenterol. Jpn. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) represses histidine decarboxylase gene expression through an upstream Sp1 site and downstream gastrin responsive elements. Ai, W., Liu, Y., Langlois, M., Wang, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. The mechanism of histamine secretion from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells. Prinz, C., Zanner, R., Gerhard, M., Mahr, S., Neumayer, N., Höhne-Zell, B., Gratzl, M. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Phosphorylation of gastrin-17 by epidermal growth factor-stimulated tyrosine kinase. Baldwin, G.S., Knesel, J., Monckton, J.M. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Cholecystokinin is a negative regulator of gastric acid secretion and postprandial release of gastrin in humans. Schmidt, W.E., Schenk, S., Nustede, R., Holst, J.J., Fölsch, U.R., Creutzfeldt, W. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Gastrin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Barrett's carcinogenesis. Abdalla, S.I., Lao-Sirieix, P., Novelli, M.R., Lovat, L.B., Sanderson, I.R., Fitzgerald, R.C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Gastrin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth through increased apoptosis by activation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C-alpha. Kanno, N., Glaser, S., Chowdhury, U., Phinizy, J.L., Baiocchi, L., Francis, H., LeSage, G., Alpini, G. J. Hepatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Postprandial levels of prolactin and gut hormones in breast cancer patients: association with stage of disease, but not dietary fat. Goettler, D.M., Levin, L., Chey, W.Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Localization of cholecystokinin A and cholecystokinin B-gastrin receptors in the human stomach. Reubi, J.C., Waser, B., Läderach, U., Stettler, C., Friess, H., Halter, F., Schmassmann, A. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Localization and characterization of gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica. Vigna, S.R., Morgan, J.L., Thomas, T.M. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. Cholecystokinin(CCK)-A and CCK-B/gastrin receptors in human tumors. Reubi, J.C., Schaer, J.C., Waser, B. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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