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Gene Review

HDHD1  -  haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 5'-PsiMPase, DXF68S1E, FAM16AX, GS1, HDHD1A, ...
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High impact information on HDHD1A


Biological context of HDHD1A

  • These results indicate that factors associated with developing chloroplasts could be required for maximal GS1 gene expression during seedling development [3].
  • C-22 showed a 12-37% lower content of GS1 protein in leaf blades than Koshihikari, which was in good agreement with a QTL region positively affected by the japonica chromosome [4].
  • Here it is shown that the two cytosolic GS isoenzymes, GS1a and GS1b, are also regulated by phosphorylation but, in contrast to GS2, GS1 phosphorylation is catalysed by calcium-independent kinase(s) and the phosphorylated enzymes fail to interact with 14-3-3s [5].

Anatomical context of HDHD1A

  • A search for the amino acid residues in the primary sequence of trypanothione reductase functionally active in binding/catalysis in human erythrocyte glutathione reductase shows that only the two arginine residues (Arg-37 and Arg-347), shown by X-ray crystallographic data to hydrogen bond to the GS1 glutathione glycyl carboxylate, are absent [6].
  • The analysis of GS1 mRNA association with polysomes indicated that the discrepancies between GS protein and mRNA levels are not a result of a differential translational rate of the transcript in darkness relative to light [3].

Associations of HDHD1A with chemical compounds

  • These data suggest a dual role for the GS1 gene associated with chloroplast development/activity and glutamine biosynthesis for nitrogen mobilization during early growth of Scots pine [3].
  • Binding of Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4) to alpha-galactose antigens [7].
  • Six accessible sulfhydryl groups of the light component of gramicidin S synthetase (GS 1) were titrated with N-ethylmaleimide (Ma1NEt) as well as 3,3'-dithiobis(6-nitrobenzoic acid) (Nbs2) [8].
  • The liposome-induced rises of pulmonary arterial pressure showed close quantitative and temporal correlation with elevations of plasma thromboxane B2 and were inhibited by an anti-C5a monoclonal antibody (GS1), by sCR1, or by indomethacin [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HDHD1A

  • In situ hybridization of cotyledon sections showed the presence of GS1 mRNAs in mesophyll and phloem cells confirming gene expression in photosynthetic tissues [3].
  • CONCLUSION: We perform elective neck dissection in T1-T2 N0 neck disease with ICG > or =13 and GS1 > or =9 [10].
  • By PCR analysis of flanking STS gene markers in our patients we succeeded in narrowing down the locus to between DXS6837 and GS1 [11].


  1. Isolation of a new gene from the distal short arm of the human X chromosome that escapes X-inactivation. Yen, P.H., Ellison, J., Salido, E.C., Mohandas, T., Shapiro, L. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Gramicidin S synthetase 1 (phenylalanine racemase), a prototype of amino acid racemases containing the cofactor 4'-phosphopantetheine. Stein, T., Kluge, B., Vater, J., Franke, P., Otto, A., Wittmann-Liebold, B. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression analysis of a cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene in cotyledons of Scots pine seedlings: developmental, light regulation and spatial distribution of specific transcripts. Cantón, F.R., Suárez, M.F., Josè-Estanyol, M., Cánovas, F.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and characterization of a QTL on chromosome 2 for cytosolic glutamine synthetase content and panicle number in rice. Obara, M., Sato, T., Sasaki, S., Kashiba, K., Nagano, A., Nakamura, I., Ebitani, T., Yano, M., Yamaya, T. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Post-translational regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase of Medicago truncatula. Lima, L., Seabra, A., Melo, P., Cullimore, J., Carvalho, H. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Trypanothione reductase of Trypanosoma congolense: gene isolation, primary sequence determination, and comparison to glutathione reductase. Shames, S.L., Kimmel, B.E., Peoples, O.P., Agabian, N., Walsh, C.T. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding of Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4) to alpha-galactose antigens. Kirkeby, S., Moe, D. Immunol. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Reactive sulfhydryl groups involved in the aminoacyl adenylate activation reactions of the gramicidin S synthetase 2. Schlumbohm, W., Vater, J., Kleinkauf, H. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Hemodynamic changes induced by liposomes and liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in pigs: a model for pseudoallergic cardiopulmonary reactions to liposomes. Role of complement and inhibition by soluble CR1 and anti-C5a antibody. Szebeni, J., Fontana, J.L., Wassef, N.M., Mongan, P.D., Morse, D.S., Dobbins, D.E., Stahl, G.L., Bünger, R., Alving, C.R. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Predictive factors of nodal metastases in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas. Giacomarra, V., Tirelli, G., Papanikolla, L., Bussani, R. Laryngoscope (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Interstitial deletion in Xp22.3 is associated with X linked ichthyosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Gohlke, B.C., Haug, K., Fukami, M., Friedl, W., Noeker, M., Rappold, G.A., Haverkamp, F. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
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