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Gene Review

Xpo1  -  exportin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Chromosome region maintenance 1 protein homolog, Crm1, Exp1, Exportin-1
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Disease relevance of Xpo1

  • In order to clarify pathogenetic targets for the testicular toxicity of a extract of Psoralea corylifolia (P. corylifolia), F344 rats were fed diet containing 3% P. corylifolia extract for up to 12 weeks and subjected to hormone assays and histopathological examination on the testis and epididymis at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 (Exp 1) [1].

High impact information on Xpo1

  • In Exp 1, we examined NPY levels in six microdissected hypothalamic nuclei, including median eminence (ME), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and medial preoptic area (MPOA), at 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, or 2200 h on the day of proestrus in young (2.5- to 3-month old) and MA (7- to 9-month old) regularly cycling rats [2].
  • In Exp 1, the potencies of a number of NPY agonists in facilitating LHRH-induced LH surges were assessed in pentobarbital (PB)-blocked, proestrous rats [3].
  • For Exp 1 and 2, 6-month-old female rats were sc injected with either 0.2 microg 1,25-(OH)2D3/kg x day or vehicle on days 1, 2, and 3 of the studies [4].
  • Short-term 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment resulted in increased values for serum and urinary calcium during the treatment phase in Exp 1, depressed osteoclast numbers and strongly elevated osteoblast perimeter by day 7, and stimulated mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate in the interval between days 5-15 of Exp 2 [4].
  • In Exp 1, GH3 cells, transfected either with luciferase reporter plasmids containing a wild type PRL promoter, a GH promoter, or a glycoprotein alpha-subunit promoter, were cocultured with PP cells [5].

Biological context of Xpo1

  • In Exp 1, in situ hybridization histochemistry and quantitative autoradiography were used to compare GAL gene expression in the BNST and AMe of prepubertal (24-day-old) and adult (90-day-old) male and female rats [6].
  • In Exp 1, in situ hybridization was used to measure NPY messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in the arcuate nucleus of female rats at 0900 h and every 2 h from 1400-2200 h on the day of proestrus (PRO) [7].
  • In Exp 1, female rats were fitted with atrial catheters on diestrus [8].
  • Thirty to 50% of T3 receptors were also localized to NM of asynchronous cultures, but T3 receptor abundance (femtomoles per 100 micrograms of protein) was significantly decreased in NM of S-phase cultures: Exp 1 (control, 140 +/- 6.2; S-phase, 56.5 +/- 0.8; Exp 2 (control, 170 +/- 12; S-phase, 105 +/- 2.4) [9].
  • Different from the rat isoform, an exportin 1-dependent nuclear export site of the human enzyme resides outside the N-terminal targeting domain in the catalytic enzyme domain [10].

Anatomical context of Xpo1


Associations of Xpo1 with chemical compounds

  • In Exp 1, rats were injected iv with 5 micrograms/kg 17 beta-estradiol, and blood was collected at 30-min intervals for 4 h [12].
  • Results from Exp 1 were as follows: administration of RU486 to rats given an ip injection of vehicle at 1330 h and pulses of saline from 1400-1800 h completely blocked the endogenous LH surge [8].
  • In Exp 1 the number of labeled cells and the average number of grains per cell were compared in sections sampled through the BNST of intact, castrated, and castrated male rats treated with physiological levels of T (1.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml plasma) [13].
  • Subjects in Exp 1 received sc injections of individually determined threshold priming doses of estradiol benzoate [14].
  • In Exp 1 plasma PRL concentrations were measured in ovariectomized rats treated for 2 weeks with a combination of E2 and P Silastic implants [15].

Other interactions of Xpo1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Xpo1

  • In Exp 1, each animal was implanted immediately after castration with multiple capsules sufficient to maintain tonic suppression of LH [17].


  1. Sequential analysis of testicular lesions and serum hormone levels in rats treated with a Psoralea corylifolia extract. Takizawa, T., Mitsumori, K., Takagi, H., Nasu, M., Yasuhara, K., Onodera, H., Imai, T., Hirose, M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Absence of increased neuropeptide Y neuronal activity before and during the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge may underlie the attenuated preovulatory LH surge in middle-aged rats. Sahu, A., Kalra, S.P. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuropeptide Y Y1-receptor stimulation is required for physiological amplification of preovulatory luteinizing hormone surges. Leupen, S.M., Besecke, L.M., Levine, J.E. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Short-term treatment of rats with high dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates bone formation and increases the number of osteoblast precursor cells in bone marrow. Erben, R.G., Scutt, A.M., Miao, D., Kollenkirchen, U., Haberey, M. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Activation of the prolactin promoter in transfected GH3 cells by posterior pituitary cells. Steinmetz, R., Gutierrez-Hartmann, A., Bigsby, R.M., Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Galanin in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala of the rat: lack of sexual dimorphism despite regulation of gene expression across puberty. Planas, B., Kolb, P.E., Raskind, M.A., Miller, M.A. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuropeptide Y gene expression in the arcuate nucleus is increased during preovulatory luteinizing hormone surges. Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Urban, J.H., Levine, J.E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. RU486 administration blocks neuropeptide Y potentiation of luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone-induced LH surges in proestrous rats. Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Tabesh, B., Norgle, J.R., Levine, J.E. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Cell cycle dependence of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors in cultured GC cells: relationship to nuclear matrix. Kumarasiri, M.H., Shapiro, L.E., Surks, M.I. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Subcellular localisation of human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C: species-specific use of alternative export sites for nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling indicates divergent roles of the catalytic and N-terminal domains. Nalaskowski, M.M., Windhorst, S., Stockebrand, M.C., Mayr, G.W. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuropeptide-Y suppresses pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized rats: possible site of action. McDonald, J.K., Lumpkin, M.D., DePaolo, L.V. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute stimulation of prolactin release by estradiol: mediation by the posterior pituitary. Murai, I., Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Steroid dependency of vasopressin neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis by in situ hybridization. Miller, M.A., Urban, J.H., Dorsa, D.M. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Progesterone in the ventromedial hypothalamus facilitates estrous behavior in ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats. Rubin, B.S., Barfield, R.J. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Prolactin (PRL) regulation of maternal behavior in rats: bromocriptine treatment delays and PRL promotes the rapid onset of behavior. Bridges, R.S., Ronsheim, P.M. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for glucose and sorbitol-induced nuclear export of glucokinase regulatory protein in hepatocytes. Mukhtar, M., Stubbs, M., Agius, L. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Gonadotropin regulation in middle-aged male rats. Gray, G.D., Smith, E.R., Davidson, J.M. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
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