The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Castration


Psychiatry related information on Castration


High impact information on Castration


Chemical compound and disease context of Castration


Biological context of Castration


Anatomical context of Castration


Associations of Castration with chemical compounds

  • One grew in an androgen-independent fashion, whereas the second formed tumors that regressed following castration then regrew [31].
  • In the brain, this enzymatic system is not regulated by castration or sex steroid administration; furthermore, neural inputs seem to be ineffective at the hypothalamic level [32].
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta, luteinizing hormone (LH) beta, and alpha subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were examined in rats after castration and sex-steroid replacement [33].
  • Castration did not significantly alter ethanol consumption in males, although treatment of castrated rats with dihydrotestosterone resulted in a significant inhibition of this parameter [34].
  • All patients were taking flutamide at the time of entry, and previous treatments with medical or surgical castration, flutamide, suramin, and hydrocortisone had failed in all of these patients [35].

Gene context of Castration

  • This potentiation is not due to a further inhibition in tumor VEGF levels induced by castration [36].
  • IGFBP-5 mRNA was not detectable in tumors from control animals, but levels increased 120-fold in tumors 3 days after castration [37].
  • Levels of SREBP cleavage-activating protein, a regulator of SREBP transcriptional activity, decreased after castration and increased significantly at androgen independence [38].
  • Castration had no significant effect on IGFBP-2 expression [37].
  • SREBP-1 68-kDa protein levels were maintained throughout progression, however, SREBP-2 68-kDa protein expression increased after castration and during progression (3-fold) [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Castration

  • Although the primary tumors regressed following oophorectomy, the growth of late generations of the transplantable lines was not affected by castration or by treatment with estrogens, androgens, and progesterone [39].
  • Adrenalectomy or castration of males led to 35 or 45% mean decreases of dopamine sulfotransferase levels, indicating adrenal and gonadal participation in control of dopamine sulfotransferase production [40].
  • Orchidectomy on day 1 resulted in an approximately 50% decrease in adult SDN-POA volume; however, the influence of the testes on their resulting SDN-POA volume was replaced affectively by the administration of 100 micrograms or 1 mg of TP on postnatal day 2 or by a testicular (but not ovarian) graft on the day of castration [41].
  • Northern blotting of RNA from tumors collected at various times after castration indicates a rapid induction of IGFBP-5 concomitant with apoptotic regression of tumors, as detected by Apoptag staining of tumor sections after castration [37].
  • In mice bearing TRPM-2-overexpressing LNCaP tumors, tumor volume and serum prostate-specific antigen increased two to three times faster after castration and paclitaxel treatment compared with mice bearing control tumors [42].


  1. Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer. Eisenberger, M.A., Blumenstein, B.A., Crawford, E.D., Miller, G., McLeod, D.G., Loehrer, P.J., Wilding, G., Sears, K., Culkin, D.J., Thompson, I.M., Bueschen, A.J., Lowe, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Combined treatment with buserelin and tamoxifen in premenopausal metastatic breast cancer: a randomized study. Klijn, J.G., Beex, L.V., Mauriac, L., van Zijl, J.A., Veyret, C., Wildiers, J., Jassem, J., Piccart, M., Burghouts, J., Becquart, D., Seynaeve, C., Mignolet, F., Duchateau, L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Bicalutamide monotherapy versus flutamide plus goserelin in prostate cancer patients: results of an Italian Prostate Cancer Project study. Boccardo, F., Rubagotti, A., Barichello, M., Battaglia, M., Carmignani, G., Comeri, G., Conti, G., Cruciani, G., Dammino, S., Delliponti, U., Ditonno, P., Ferraris, V., Lilliu, S., Montefiore, F., Portoghese, F., Spano, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Tamoxifen in premenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer: a review. Sunderland, M.C., Osborne, C.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Feminization of rat hepatic P-450 expression by cisplatin. Evidence for perturbations in the hormonal regulation of steroid-metabolizing enzymes. LeBlanc, G.A., Waxman, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection. Musicki, B., Palese, M.A., Crone, J.K., Burnett, A.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Hormone treatment facilitates penile erection in castrated rats after sleep deprivation and cocaine. Andersen, M.L., Bignotto, M., Tufik, S. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of photostimulation, castration, and testosterone replacement on daily patterns of calling and locomotor activity in Japanese quail. Wada, M. Hormones and behavior. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of circulating androgen levels in effects of apoE4 on cognitive function. Pfankuch, T., Rizk, A., Olsen, R., Poage, C., Raber, J. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Preoptic and midbrain control of sexual motivation. Edwards, D.A., Einhorn, L.C. Physiol. Behav. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of sex steroids in the acquisition and production of birdsong. Marler, P., Peters, S., Ball, G.F., Dufty, A.M., Wingfield, J.C. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Testosterone-sensitive neurones respond to oestradiol but not to dihydrotestosterone. Kendrick, K.M., Drewett, R.F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of prostate cancer with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Labrie, F., Dupont, A., Bélanger, A., St-Arnaud, R., Giguère, M., Lacourcière, Y., Emond, J., Monfette, G. Endocr. Rev. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Independent prognostic factors in patients with metastatic (stage D2) prostate cancer. The Zoladex Study Group. Chodak, G.W., Vogelzang, N.J., Caplan, R.J., Soloway, M., Smith, J.A. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Eunuchs and castrations: JAMA faces the music. Smith, A.M. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Medical castration produced by the GnRH analogue leuprolide to treat metastatic breast cancer. Harvey, H.A., Lipton, A., Max, D.T., Pearlman, H.G., Diaz-Perches, R., de la Garza, J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Chemical castration induced by adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy causes rapid bone loss that is reduced by clodronate: a randomized study in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Saarto, T., Blomqvist, C., Välimäki, M., Mäkelä, P., Sarna, S., Elomaa, I. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Prognostic significance of tissue prostate-specific antigen in endocrine-treated prostate carcinomas. Stege, R., Grande, M., Carlström, K., Tribukait, B., Pousette, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of androgen suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and flutamide on lipid metabolism in men with prostate cancer: focus on lipoprotein(a). Denti, L., Pasolini, G., Cortellini, P., Ferretti, S., Sanfelici, L., Ablondi, F., Valenti, G. Clin. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in rat prostate: characterization of LHRH peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid expression, and molecular processing of LHRH in intact and castrated male rats. Azad, N., Uddin, S., La Paglia, N., Kirsteins, L., Emanuele, N.V., Lawrence, A.M., Kelley, M.R. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Leuprorelin rescues polyglutamine-dependent phenotypes in a transgenic mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Katsuno, M., Adachi, H., Doyu, M., Minamiyama, M., Sang, C., Kobayashi, Y., Inukai, A., Sobue, G. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Relative potency of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in preventing atrophy and apoptosis in the prostate of the castrated rat. Wright, A.S., Thomas, L.N., Douglas, R.C., Lazier, C.B., Rittmaster, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas. Mills, J.S., Needham, M., Parker, M.G. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Gene expression during the early phases of regression of the androgen-dependent Shionogi mouse mammary carcinoma. Rennie, P.S., Bruchovsky, N., Buttyan, R., Benson, M., Cheng, H. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein 2 is associated with carcinogenesis induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea in rat prostate and seminal vesicle. Kadomatsu, K., Anzano, M.A., Slayter, M.V., Winokur, T.S., Smith, J.M., Sporn, M.B. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Testosterone reduces refractory period of stria terminalis neurons in the rat brain. Kendrick, K.M., Drewett, R.F. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Excitatory amino acids: function and significance in reproduction and neuroendocrine regulation. Brann, D.W., Mahesh, V.B. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of portal vein ligation on sex hormone metabolism in male rats: relationship to lowered hepatic cytochrome P450 levels. Farrell, G.C., Koltai, A., Zaluzny, L., Murray, M. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Cell proliferation, DNA repair, and p53 function are not required for programmed death of prostatic glandular cells induced by androgen ablation. Berges, R.R., Furuya, Y., Remington, L., English, H.F., Jacks, T., Isaacs, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Endothelial cell death, angiogenesis, and microvascular function after castration in an androgen-dependent tumor: role of vascular endothelial growth factor. Jain, R.K., Safabakhsh, N., Sckell, A., Chen, Y., Jiang, P., Benjamin, L., Yuan, F., Keshet, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Progression of metastatic human prostate cancer to androgen independence in immunodeficient SCID mice. Klein, K.A., Reiter, R.E., Redula, J., Moradi, H., Zhu, X.L., Brothman, A.R., Lamb, D.J., Marcelli, M., Belldegrun, A., Witte, O.N., Sawyers, C.L. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. The 5 alpha-reductase in the brain: molecular aspects and relation to brain function. Celotti, F., Melcangi, R.C., Martini, L. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Sex steroid hormone regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone subunit messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in the rat. Gharib, S.D., Wierman, M.E., Badger, T.M., Chin, W.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Gender differences in ethanol preference and ingestion in rats. The role of the gonadal steroid environment. Almeida, O.F., Shoaib, M., Deicke, J., Fischer, D., Darwish, M.H., Patchev, V.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Surprising activity of flutamide withdrawal, when combined with aminoglutethimide, in treatment of "hormone-refractory" prostate cancer. Sartor, O., Cooper, M., Weinberger, M., Headlee, D., Thibault, A., Tompkins, A., Steinberg, S., Figg, W.D., Linehan, W.M., Myers, C.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Potentiation of the antiangiogenic ability of linomide by androgen ablation involves down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human androgen-responsive prostatic cancers. Joseph, I.B., Isaacs, J.T. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Castration-induced apoptosis of androgen-dependent shionogi carcinoma is associated with increased expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins. Nickerson, T., Miyake, H., Gleave, M.E., Pollak, M. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Dysregulation of sterol response element-binding proteins and downstream effectors in prostate cancer during progression to androgen independence. Ettinger, S.L., Sobel, R., Whitmore, T.G., Akbari, M., Bradley, D.R., Gleave, M.E., Nelson, C.C. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Transplantable mammary tumors in Wistar/Furth rats: development, antigenicity, and effect of hormone manipulations. Piessens, W.F., Churchill, W.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Hepatic dopamine sulfotransferases in untreated rats and in rats subjected to endocrine or hypertension-related treatments. Singer, S.S., Palmert, M.R., Redman, M.D., Leahy, D.M., Feeser, T.C., Lucarelli, M.J., Volkwein, L.S., Bruns, M. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. The influence of gonadectomy, androgen exposure, or a gonadal graft in the neonatal rat on the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Jacobson, C.D., Csernus, V.J., Shryne, J.E., Gorski, R.A. J. Neurosci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  42. Acquisition of chemoresistant phenotype by overexpression of the antiapoptotic gene testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 in prostate cancer xenograft models. Miyake, H., Nelson, C., Rennie, P.S., Gleave, M.E. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities