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Gene Review

RPL28  -  ribosomal 60S subunit protein L28

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: 60S ribosomal protein L28, CYH2, L27a, L29, RP44, ...
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Disease relevance of RPL28

  • The complete amino acid sequences of the ribosomal proteins L25, L29 and L31 were established by analyses of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus protease, chymotrypsin and lysylendopeptidase [1].

High impact information on RPL28

  • Northern blot analysis revealed the disappearance of some mRNAs (CYH2 and HIS4) consistent with a role for poly(A) tails in mRNA stability [2].
  • In L29 the corresponding Arg 25----Lys substitution within the nuclear localizing sequence distal to the N-terminus was without effect, as evidence by normal rates of ribosome assembly and cell growth [3].
  • Mixing and matching of the elements from the ACT1 and CYH2 gene introns showed that these elements can cooperate in an intron-specific fashion to control spliceosome assembly [4].
  • Mutations in the yeast ribosomal protein L29 gene (CYH2) are known that confer cycloheximide resistance [5].
  • The L27' cDNA was expressed in yeast to determine the ability of the mouse protein to substitute for yeast L29 in assembling a functional ribosome [6].

Biological context of RPL28

  • Along with three novel ORFs, encoding two proteins of unknown molecular function and one putative hexose transporter, this segment also contained the Kl-RPL28 gene, found to be responsible for the cycloheximide resistance of heterologous transformants [7].
  • Mutations in cyh2 or cry1, producing resistance to cycloheximide and crytopleurine due to mutant ribosomal proteins, do not produce a mak- phenotype [8].
  • Mutations in ICK1 restore kinetochore function but have no effect on ctf13-30 mRNA or CYH2 pre-mRNA accumulation [9].
  • In order to define the cis -acting element(s) of ribosomal protein genes sensitive to a defect in the secretory pathway, we have constructed a series of fusion genes containing the CYH2 promoter region, with various deletions, fused to lacZ [10].
  • Structural analysis of the recombinant plasmids obtained from the resistant cells showed that the plasmids had deletions at various sites of the CAN1-CYH2 region and there were only short regions of homology (1-5 bp) at the recombination junctions [11].

Anatomical context of RPL28

  • A significant fraction of the CYH2 pre-mRNA that accumulated in the presence of cycloheximide was associated with polysomes, but disappeared from that fraction when decay resumed in the absence of the drug [12].

Associations of RPL28 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of RPL28

  • A diploid strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been constructed that has one copy of the ribosomal protein gene CYH2 completely deleted and replaced with the TRP1 gene using the method of Rothstein (1983) [18].

Regulatory relationships of RPL28

  • This strain also contains the wild-type CYH2 allele under the transcriptional control of the Gal1 promoter [19].

Other interactions of RPL28

  • We placed a regulatory sequence derived from the GAL10 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various distances from the start sites of transcription of two yeast ribosomal protein genes, tcm1 and cyh2 [14].
  • First, an internal region of the cloned HIS3 gene was replaced by a DNA segment containing the wild-type ribosomal protein gene, CYH2 [20].
  • Effects of progressive depletion of TCM1 or CYH2 mRNA on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein accumulation [21].
  • The second fragment covers the 72.6 kb region between the chromosomal markers CYH2 and ALG2 [22].
  • It shows 80.4% homology to protein L29 from the large ribosomal subunit of rat and is related to yeast YL43 [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RPL28


  1. Complete amino acid sequences of the ribosomal proteins L25, L29 and L31 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui. Hatakeyama, T., Kimura, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficient translation of poly(A)-deficient mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proweller, A., Butler, S. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of nuclear localizing sequences derived from yeast ribosomal protein L29. Underwood, M.R., Fried, H.M. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Specific accessory sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae introns control assembly of pre-mRNAs into spliceosomes. Newman, A. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Transformation of Tetrahymena to cycloheximide resistance with a ribosomal protein gene through sequence replacement. Yao, M.C., Yao, C.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Functional substitution of mouse ribosomal protein L27' for yeast ribosomal protein L29 in yeast ribosomes. Fleming, G., Belhumeur, P., Skup, D., Fried, H.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation, heterological cloning and sequencing of the RPL28 gene in Kluyveromyces lactis. Takacova, M., Sklenar, P., Gbelska, Y., Breunig, K., Subik, J. Curr. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Ribosomal protein L3 is involved in replication or maintenance of the killer double-stranded RNA genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wickner, R.B., Ridley, S.P., Fried, H.M., Ball, S.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Accumulation of mRNA coding for the ctf13p kinetochore subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the same factors that promote rapid decay of nonsense mRNAs. Dahlseid, J.N., Puziss, J., Shirley, R.L., Atkin, A.L., Hieter, P., Culbertson, M.R. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The C-terminal silencing domain of Rap1p is essential for the repression of ribosomal protein genes in response to a defect in the secretory pathway. Mizuta, K., Tsujii, R., Warner, J.R., Nishiyama, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of mutations of RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, and related genes on illegitimate recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tsukamoto, Y., Kato, J., Ikeda, H. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Polysome-associated mRNAs are substrates for the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zhang, S., Welch, E.M., Hogan, K., Brown, A.H., Peltz, S.W., Jacobson, A. RNA (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16 on illegitimate recombination in yeast chromosomes. Asami, Y., Jia, D.W., Tatebayashi, K., Yamagata, K., Tanokura, M., Ikeda, H. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of yeast strains with conditionally expressed variants of ribosomal protein genes tcm1 and cyh2. Fried, H.M., Nam, H.G., Loechel, S., Teem, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Cycloheximide resistance in yeast: the gene and its protein. Käufer, N.F., Fried, H.M., Schwindinger, W.F., Jasin, M., Warner, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Intron mutations that affect the splicing efficiency of the CYH2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Swida, U., Thüroff, E., Käufer, N.F. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. The detection of monosomic colonies produced by mitotic chromosome non-disjunction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Parry, J.M., Zimmerman, F.K. Mutat. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Construction and characterization of a haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that completely lacks all genomic CYH2 sequences. Miles, D.J., Donovan, D.M., Pearson, N.J. Curr. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. The reverse two-hybrid system: a genetic scheme for selection against specific protein/protein interactions. Leanna, C.A., Hannink, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Direct selection for gene replacement events in yeast. Struhl, K. Gene (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of progressive depletion of TCM1 or CYH2 mRNA on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein accumulation. Nam, H.G., Fried, H.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Sequence analysis of 203 kilobases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII. Rieger, M., Brückner, M., Schäfer, M., Müller-Auer, S. Yeast (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel cDNA encoding a human homologue of ribosomal protein L29. Law, P.T., Tsui, S.K., Lam, W.Y., Luk, S.C., Hwang, D.M., Liew, C.C., Lee, C.Y., Fung, K.P., Waye, M.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning and analysis of yeast gene for cycloheximide resistance and ribosomal protein L29. Fried, H.M., Warner, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
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