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Gene Review

TSC22D1  -  TSC22 domain family, member 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cerebral protein 2, KIAA1994, MGC17597, Ptg-2, Regulatory protein TSC-22, ...
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Disease relevance of TSC22D1

  • On immunostaining of the transfected cells, almost every cell that expressed TSC-22 tagged with influenza virus haemagglutinin exhibited the morphology of an apoptotic cell [1].
  • The cDNA array analysis of differential expression of the TGFbeta superfamily and functionally related genes between patient-matched noncancerous prostate (NP) and prostate cancer (PC) bulk tissue specimens highlighted two genes, namely TGFbeta-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) and Id4 [2].
  • We estimated the frequency of the -396 A/G polymorphism of the TSC-22 gene with an Alu I-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 498 Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus [3].
  • The differential expression of TSC-22 gene was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR in 15 samples of astrocytomas WHO grade II-IV and three samples of normal brain [4].
  • Downregulation of putative tumor suppressor gene TSC-22 in human brain tumors [4].

High impact information on TSC22D1

  • We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter [5].
  • The ability of PPARgamma to induce TSC-22 was not dependent on an intact TGF-beta1 signaling pathway and was specific for the gamma isoform [6].
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and transforming growth factor-beta pathways inhibit intestinal epithelial cell growth by regulating levels of TSC-22 [6].
  • Furthermore, transfection with a dominant negative TSC-22 in which both repressor domains were deleted was able to reverse the p21 induction and growth inhibition caused by activation of either the PPARgamma or TGF-beta pathways [6].
  • TSC-22 is member of a family of leucine zipper containing transcription factors with repressor activity [6].

Biological context of TSC22D1


Anatomical context of TSC22D1


Associations of TSC22D1 with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of TSC22D1

  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TSC-22 protein expression in NP is restricted to the basal cells and colocalizes with the basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 [2].

Regulatory relationships of TSC22D1

  • Although originally TSC-22 was isolated as a TGF-beta-inducible gene, TSC-22 promoter was not activated by the enhanced TGF-beta signaling [7].
  • In this study, we examined the in vivo chemosensitivity of TSC-22-expressing TYS cells [12].

Other interactions of TSC22D1

  • Cells transfected with wild-type TSC-22 exhibited reduced growth rates and increased levels of p21 compared with vector-transfected cells [6].
  • Interestingly, both TSC-22 and THG-1 have transcriptional repressor activity when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain [10].
  • These findings suggest that the TSC-22 gene (-396) A allele is associated with an increasing risk of the diabetic nephropathy [3].
  • Collagen IIA was also induced by seven genes, the most potent being transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated protein TSC22, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and splicing factor 3a [13].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of TSC-22 and GFAP expression with the use of anti-human-TSC-22- and anti-human-GFAP-antibodies was performed on histological slides of astrocytic tumors [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TSC22D1


  1. Mechanism of apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells mediated by transforming growth factor beta. Ohta, S., Yanagihara, K., Nagata, K. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential expression of TGFbeta-stimulated clone 22 in normal prostate and prostate cancer. Rentsch, C.A., Cecchini, M.G., Schwaninger, R., Germann, M., Markwalder, R., Heller, M., van der Pluijm, G., Thalmann, G.N., Wetterwald, A. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of the TSC-22 (-396) A/G variant in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Sugawara, F., Yamada, Y., Watanabe, R., Ban, N., Miyawaki, K., Kuroe, A., Hamasaki, A., Ikeda, H., Kurose, T., Usami, M., Ikeda, M., Seino, Y. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Downregulation of putative tumor suppressor gene TSC-22 in human brain tumors. Shostak, K.O., Dmitrenko, V.V., Garifulin, O.M., Rozumenko, V.D., Khomenko, O.V., Zozulya, Y.A., Zehetner, G., Kavsan, V.M. Journal of surgical oncology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Nakashiro, K., Kawamata, H., Hino, S., Uchida, D., Miwa, Y., Hamano, H., Omotehara, F., Yoshida, H., Sato, M. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and transforming growth factor-beta pathways inhibit intestinal epithelial cell growth by regulating levels of TSC-22. Gupta, R.A., Sarraf, P., Brockman, J.A., Shappell, S.B., Raftery, L.A., Willson, T.M., DuBois, R.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Posttranscriptional regulation of TSC-22 (TGF-beta-stimulated clone-22) gene by TGF-beta 1. Uchida, D., Omotehara, F., Nakashiro, K., Tateishi, Y., Hino, S., Begum, N.M., Fujimori, T., Kawamata, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Over-expression of TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in a human salivary gland cancer cell line. Uchida, D., Kawamata, H., Omotehara, F., Miwa, Y., Hino, S., Begum, N.M., Yoshida, H., Sato, M. Lab. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Patterns of expression of TSC-22 protein in astrocytic gliomas. Shostak, K.O., Dmitrenko, V.V., Vudmaska, M.I., Naidenov, V.G., Beletskii, A.V., Malisheva, T.A., Semenova, V.M., Zozulya, Y.P., Demotes-Mainard, J., Kavsan, V.M. Experimental oncology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22 is a member of a family of leucine zipper proteins that can homo- and heterodimerize and has transcriptional repressor activity. Kester, H.A., Blanchetot, C., den Hertog, J., van der Saag, P.T., van der Burg, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of TSC-22 by treatment with a new anti-cancer drug, vesnarinone, in a human salivary gland cancer cell. Kawamata, H., Nakashiro, K., Uchida, D., Hino, S., Omotehara, F., Yoshida, H., Sato, M. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. In vivo enhancement of chemosensitivity of human salivary gland cancer cells by overexpression of TGF-beta stimulated clone-22. Omotehara, F., Uchida, D., Hino, S., Begum, N.M., Yoshida, H., Sato, M., Kawamata, H. Oncol. Rep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of comprehensive functional genomic screens to identify novel mediators of osteoarthritis. Daouti, S., Latario, B., Nagulapalli, S., Buxton, F., Uziel-Fusi, S., Chirn, G.W., Bodian, D., Song, C., Labow, M., Lotz, M., Quintavalla, J., Kumar, C. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2005) [Pubmed]
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