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Chemical Compound Review

Penetrex     1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7- piperazin-1-yl-1...

Synonyms: enoxacin, Enoxin, Enoxor, CI-919, AT-2266, ...
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Disease relevance of CI 919


Psychiatry related information on CI 919


High impact information on CI 919


Chemical compound and disease context of CI 919


Biological context of CI 919

  • Ranitidine pretreatment reduced enoxacin oral bioavailability by an average of 26% [16].
  • Pharmacokinetics of enoxacin and its oxometabolite following intravenous administration to patients with different degrees of renal impairment [17].
  • In conclusion, our study revealed considerable differences in the distribution kinetics of enoxacin among various excretory sites [18].
  • Pyridonecarboxylic acids as antibacterial agents. 2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1,6,7-trisubstituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids, including enoxacin, a new antibacterial agent [19].
  • The substituent at position 8 was found to determine the molecular conformations of the fluoroquinolones, and the planarity in molecular shape decreased in the same order as the inhibitory activity (enoxacin > 8-Hy > 8-F1) [20].

Anatomical context of CI 919


Associations of CI 919 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of CI 919


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CI 919

  • Blood specimens collected over 24 hours after the final dose of enoxacin and urine collected during the 12-hour dose interval after the final dose were assayed for enoxacin by HPLC [33].
  • In a four-subject, four-way crossover study enoxacin was administered every 12 hours at four levels (0, 25, 100, and 400 mg) for 14 doses [34].
  • In a multicentre, open, non-comparative trial, clinical cure or improvement in skin or skin structure infections was achieved after oral administration of enoxacin 200 to 600 mg twice daily in 88% of 196 evaluable patients [35].
  • Enoxacin concentrations were measured in serum and bone (cortical and cancellous) by high-pressure liquid chromatography [36].
  • Enoxacin treatment for 3 or 5 days and vancomycin treatment for 5 days significantly reduced bacterial counts of vegetations compared with those in untreated control rabbits after 1 day of infection [37].


  1. Oral treatment of systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection with enoxacin. Hubrechts, J.M., Vanhoof, R., Servais, J., Toen, R., Sacré, J., van Gysel, J.P. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of enoxacin in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Miller, M.G., Ghoneim, A.T., Littlewood, J.M. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. The DNA cleavage reaction of DNA gyrase. Comparison of stable ternary complexes formed with enoxacin and CcdB protein. Scheirer, K.E., Higgins, N.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Systemic management of cutaneous bacterial infections. Parish, L.C., Witkowski, J.A. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of organ-specific toxicity of temafloxacin in animals and humans. Krasula, R.W., Pernet, A.G. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Assessment of temafloxacin neurotoxicity in rodents. Giardina, W.J. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A DNA gyrase-binding site at the center of the bacteriophage Mu genome is required for efficient replicative transposition. Pato, M.L., Howe, M.M., Higgins, N.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Lomefloxacin: microbiologic assessment and unique properties. Mayer, K.H., Ellal, J.A. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and in vitro investigations. Harder, S., Fuhr, U., Staib, A.H., Wolff, T. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction of pefloxacin and enoxacin with the human cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2. Kinzig-Schippers, M., Fuhr, U., Zaigler, M., Dammeyer, J., Rüsing, G., Labedzki, A., Bulitta, J., Sörgel, F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative evaluation of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Kemmerich, B., Small, G.J., Pennington, J.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro and in vivo activities of QA-241, a new tricyclic quinolone derivative. Asahara, M., Tsuji, A., Goto, S., Masuda, K., Kiuchi, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Overview of toxicological studies. Mayer, D.G. Drugs (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Proposed criteria for interpretation of susceptibilities of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, and norfloxacin. Knapp, J.S., Hale, J.A., Neal, S.W., Wintersheid, K., Rice, R.J., Whittington, W.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. Orden, J.A., Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J.A., García, S., Cid, D., De La Fuente, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of gastric acidity on enoxacin absorption. Lebsack, M.E., Nix, D., Ryerson, B., Toothaker, R.D., Welage, L., Norman, A.M., Schentag, J.J., Sedman, A.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetics of enoxacin and its oxometabolite following intravenous administration to patients with different degrees of renal impairment. Van der Auwera, P., Stolear, J.C., George, B., Dudley, M.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution kinetics of enoxacin and its metabolite oxoenoxacin in excretory fluids of healthy volunteers. Jaehde, U., Sörgel, F., Naber, K.G., Zürcher, J., Schunack, W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Pyridonecarboxylic acids as antibacterial agents. 2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1,6,7-trisubstituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids, including enoxacin, a new antibacterial agent. Matsumoto, J., Miyamoto, T., Minamida, A., Nishimura, Y., Egawa, H., Nishimura, H. J. Med. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure-related inhibitory effect of antimicrobial enoxacin and derivatives on theophylline metabolism by rat liver microsomes. Mizuki, Y., Fujiwara, I., Yamaguchi, T., Sekine, Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Tissue penetration and clinical efficacy of enoxacin in urinary tract infections. Childs, S.J. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Penetration of enoxacin into bronchial secretions. Fong, I.W., Vandenbroucke, A., Simbul, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. 4-Quinolone drugs affect cell cycle progression and function of human lymphocytes in vitro. Forsgren, A., Schlossman, S.F., Tedder, T.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical overview of enoxacin. Zinner, S.H. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Enoxacin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Henwood, J.M., Monk, J.P. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of difloxacin, enoxacin, and cefazolin for the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Boscia, J.A., Kobasa, W.D., Kaye, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative in vitro activities of enoxacin (CI-919, AT-2266) and eleven antipseudomonal agents against aminoglycoside-susceptible and -resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Bassey, C.M., Baltch, A.L., Smith, R.P., Conley, P.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of difloxacin, enoxacin, and cefoperazone for treatment of experimental Enterobacter aerogenes endocarditis. Boscia, J.A., Kobasa, W.D., Kaye, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Alteration of bacterial DNA structure, gene expression, and plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance following exposure to enoxacin. Courtright, J.B., Turowski, D.A., Sonstein, S.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Fluoroquinolone resistance among methicillin-resistant staphylococci after usage of fluoroquinolones other than ciprofloxacin in Taiwan. Chang, S.C., Hsieh, W.C., Luh, K.T. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Induction of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase gene transcription by chemicals in Escherichia coli. Sitjes, J., Ysern, P., Barbe, J., Llagostera, M. Mutagenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Induction of SOS genes in Escherichia coli and mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium by fluoroquinolones. Ysern, P., Clerch, B., Castańo, M., Gibert, I., Barbé, J., Llagostera, M. Mutagenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Elimination of enoxacin in renal disease. Bury, R.W., Becker, G.J., Kincaid-Smith, P.S., Moulds, R.F., Whitworth, J.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. The theophylline-enoxacin interaction: I. Effect of enoxacin dose size on theophylline disposition. Rogge, M.C., Solomon, W.R., Sedman, A.J., Welling, P.G., Toothaker, R.D., Wagner, J.G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Review of tissue penetration and clinical efficacy of enoxacin in skin and skin structure infections and in osteomyelitis. Pankey, G.A. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Bone penetration of enoxacin in patients with and without osteomyelitis. Fong, I.W., Rittenhouse, B.R., Simbul, M., Vandenbroucke, A.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Enoxacin compared with vancomycin for the treatment of experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Gilbert, M., Boscia, J.A., Kobasa, W.D., Kaye, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
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