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MeSH Review

Norwalk Virus

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Disease relevance of Norwalk Virus


High impact information on Norwalk Virus

  • Using a human challenge model, we showed that 29% of our study population was homozygous recessive for the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2) in the ABH histo-blood group family and did not express the H type-1 oligosaccharide ligand required for Norwalk virus binding [5].
  • Three of seven paired sera tested for antibodies to the Norwalk agent had a four-fold or greater rise in titre [6].
  • The therapeutic efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate was examined in a randomized double-blind fashion in 59 volunteers who were inoculated with Norwalk agent [7].
  • To determine whether a gastric mucosal lesion also accompanies this illness, stool filtrate containing Norwalk agent was given orally to 15 volunteers after base line biopsies of gastric fundal and/or antral mucosa had been obtained [8].
  • The proteins of the Norwalk virus were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Norwalk Virus

  • Processing of Norwalk virus nonstructural proteins by a 3C-like cysteine proteinase [10].
  • Further work is being carried out to define the relationship of these two serotypes to the previously described Norwalk agent (A. Z. Kapikian, R. G. Wyatt, R. Dolin, T. S. Thornhill, A. R. Kalica, and R. M. Chanock, J. Virol. 10:1075-1081, 1972), and four subsequent hospital outbreaks are being studied [11].
  • Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation [12].

Gene context of Norwalk Virus

  • Bile-salt-stimulated lipase and mucins from milk of 'secretor' mothers inhibit the binding of Norwalk virus capsids to their carbohydrate ligands [13].
  • Although the strains belonging to Norwalk virus (KY89) in the genogroup-1 and belonging to P1B (OSAP 18) in the genogroup-2 were detected for a prolonged period from 1988 to 1992/ 1993, the homology in these strains was very close, and this study shows that a high homogeneity was conserved in these strains [14].
  • Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type [15].
  • All 54 Se+ milk samples, but 0 of 6 Se- milk samples, blocked VA387 and Norwalk virus (Se+ binders) from binding to saliva samples [16].
  • Detection of Norwalk virus in stool by polymerase chain reaction [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Norwalk Virus

  • Analysis by radioimmunoassay of pediatric sera from three populations showed that antibody to Norwalk virus is acquired at a significantly earlier age in a less developed and tropical area (Philippines) than in two more developed and nontropical countries (United States and Taiwan) [18].
  • Sera obtained from two groups of adult volunteers infected with Norwalk virus (NV) and two groups of patients involved in two natural outbreaks were tested for NV-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM) by use of a monoclonal antibody, recombinant-antigen-based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) [19].
  • Of 20 stool specimens from human volunteers that were positive for Norwalk virus by RIA, a specific RT-PCR-OP result was obtained in 95% (19 of 20) of the samples by using the immunogenic protein primers and 75% (15 of 20) by using the polymerase primers [20].
  • The Norwalk virus genome regions encoding the following two proteins were amplified by RT-PCR: the RNA polymerase (260-bp product) and a putative immunogenic protein (224-bp product) [20].


  1. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Kaplan, J.E., Gary, G.W., Baron, R.C., Singh, N., Schonberger, L.B., Feldman, R., Greenberg, H.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Norwalk virus N-terminal nonstructural protein is associated with disassembly of the Golgi complex in transfected cells. Fernandez-Vega, V., Sosnovtsev, S.V., Belliot, G., King, A.D., Mitra, T., Gorbalenya, A., Green, K.Y. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Influence of the combined ABO, FUT2, and FUT3 polymorphism on susceptibility to Norwalk virus attachment. Marionneau, S., Airaud, F., Bovin, N.V., Le Pendu, J., Ruvoën-Clouet, N. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Serologic survey of rotavirus, Norwalk agent and Prototheca wickerhamii in wastewater workers. Clark, C.S., Linnemann, C.C., Gartside, P.S., Phair, J.P., Blacklow, N., Zeiss, C.R. American journal of public health. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Lindesmith, L., Moe, C., Marionneau, S., Ruvoen, N., Jiang, X., Lindblad, L., Stewart, P., LePendu, J., Baric, R. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Waterborne outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis at a southwest US resort: role of geological formations in contamination of well water. Lawson, H.W., Braun, M.M., Glass, R.I., Stine, S.E., Monroe, S.S., Atrash, H.K., Lee, L.E., Englender, S.J. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Bismuth subsalicylate therapy of viral gastroenteritis. Steinhoff, M.C., Douglas, R.G., Greenberg, H.B., Callahan, D.R. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure of the gastric mucosa in acute infectious bacterial gastroenteritis. Widerlite, L., Trier, J.S., Blacklow, N.R., Schreiber, D.S. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Proteins of Norwalk virus. Greenberg, H.B., Valdesuso, J.R., Kalica, A.R., Wyatt, R.G., McAuliffe, V.J., Kapikian, A.Z., Chanock, R.M. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Processing of Norwalk virus nonstructural proteins by a 3C-like cysteine proteinase. Blakeney, S.J., Cahill, A., Reilly, P.A. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Solid-phase immune electron microscopy with human immunoglobulin M for serotyping of Norwalk-like viruses. Lewis, D.C., Lightfoot, N.F., Pether, J.V. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods. Leggitt, P.R., Jaykus, L.A. J. Food Prot. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Bile-salt-stimulated lipase and mucins from milk of 'secretor' mothers inhibit the binding of Norwalk virus capsids to their carbohydrate ligands. Ruvoën-Clouet, N., Mas, E., Marionneau, S., Guillon, P., Lombardo, D., Le Pendu, J. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular epidemiology of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) outbreaks occurring in Kyushu Japan between 1988 and 1993. Otsu, R., Ishikawa, A., Mukae, K., Nakayama, H., Sarashi, M. Eur. J. Epidemiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. Hennessy, E.P., Green, A.D., Connor, M.P., Darby, R., MacDonald, P. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Human milk contains elements that block binding of noroviruses to human histo-blood group antigens in saliva. Jiang, X., Huang, P., Zhong, W., Tan, M., Farkas, T., Morrow, A.L., Newburg, D.S., Ruiz-Palacios, G.M., Pickering, L.K. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of Norwalk virus in stool by polymerase chain reaction. Jiang, X., Wang, J., Graham, D.Y., Estes, M.K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparative study of the acquisition of antibody to Norwalk virus in pediatric populations. Cukor, G., Blacklow, N.R., Echeverria, P., Bedigian, M.K., Puruggan, H., Basaca-Sevilla, V. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of Norwalk virus and other genogroup 1 human caliciviruses by a monoclonal antibody, recombinant-antigen-based immunoglobulin M capture enzyme immunoassay. Brinker, J.P., Blacklow, N.R., Estes, M.K., Moe, C.L., Schwab, K.J., Herrmann, J.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Detection of Norwalk virus in stool specimens by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nonradioactive oligoprobes. De Leon, R., Matsui, S.M., Baric, R.S., Herrmann, J.E., Blacklow, N.R., Greenberg, H.B., Sobsey, M.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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