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Gene Review

CEL  -  carboxyl ester lipase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BAL, BSDL, BSSL, Bile salt-activated lipase, Bile salt-stimulated lipase, ...
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Disease relevance of CEL


Psychiatry related information on CEL

  • In Pick's disease, increased AGE, CML, CEL, HNE and MDAL bands of about 50 kDa were observed in the frontal cortex (but not in the occipital cortex) in association with increased density of glial acidic protein bands [6].
  • The first comparative study on predicting post-test distress (conceptualised by intrusion and avoidance, measured with the Impact of Event Scale) after presymptomatic genetic testing for Huntington's disease (HD, n=25), cancer syndromes (familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, n=23)), and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, n=10) is reported [7].
  • Clara cell secretory protein. Levels in BAL fluid after smoking cessation [8].
  • The results of photometric measurements carried out on tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx reveal thermal stability up to 55 degrees C, response time as 180 s, linearity up to 780 mg dL(-1) (12 mM), shelf life of 1 month, detection limit of 12 mg dL(-1) and sensitivity as 5.4 x 10(-5) Abs. mg(-1) dL(-1) [9].

High impact information on CEL


Chemical compound and disease context of CEL


Biological context of CEL


Anatomical context of CEL

  • We have used the CEL-expressing human monocytic cell line THP-1 to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the human CEL in monocytes [19].
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that the E-box is also necessary for CEL expression in the pancreas and the mammary gland, although there are tissue-specific requirements for additional activating elements [19].
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human carboxyl ester lipase gene in THP-1 monocytes: an E-box required for activation binds upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 [19].
  • CEL was purified from human pancreas and microsequence analysis was performed on the amino-terminal and internal peptides [20].
  • Preincubating human aortic endothelial cells with oxidized or native low-density lipoprotein resulted in an 8- and 3-fold increase in CEL activity secreted into the culture medium respectively [21].

Associations of CEL with chemical compounds

  • Originally thought to be confined to the gastrointestinal system, CEL has been reported in the plasma of humans and other mammals, implying its potential in vivo to modify lipids associated with LDL, HDL (CE, TG), and oxidized LDL (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysoPC) [22].
  • Human LDL and HDL3 reconstituted with radiolabeled lipids were incubated with purified porcine CEL without or with cholate (10 or 100 microM, concentrations achievable in systemic or portal plasma, respectively) [22].
  • The mechanism appears to be mediated through CEL hydrolysis of ceramide generated during the lipid absorption process [23].
  • The primary sequence of CEL shows strong similarity to members of the serine esterase family, including the identical G-E-S-A-G motif at the putative active site [20].
  • Carboxylester lipase (CEL) has been known to catalyze FAEE synthesis from fatty acids and ethanol [3].

Physical interactions of CEL


Enzymatic interactions of CEL


Regulatory relationships of CEL


Other interactions of CEL

  • A previously unknown gene with a striking homology to the human CEL gene, here called the CEL-like gene (CELL), has also been isolated and characterized, including 1724 bp of the 5'-flanking region [1].
  • However, the sequence corresponding to exon 11, which should code for the 16 tandem-repeated identical mucin-like sequences of BSDL, was deleted by 330 base pairs (bp) and encoded only 6 of these repeated sequences [28].
  • Therefore, we engineered the COOH-terminal peptide of BSDL and demonstrated that autoreactivity was linked to specific glycosylation sites by at least two glycosyltransferases: the Core 2 beta(1-6)N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and the alpha(1-3) fucosyltransferase FUT7 [4].
  • We measured the concentration of CEL in human plasma as 1.2+/-0.5 ng/ml (in the range reported for lipoprotein lipase) [22].
  • Interestingly, two prediabetic individuals were already positive for anti-BSDL antibodies (Abs), while islet cell cytoplasmic Abs and antibodies to GAD65, IA-2, and insulin were not detected [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CEL


  1. Genomic organization, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) gene and a CEL-like (CELL) gene. Lidberg, U., Nilsson, J., Strömberg, K., Stenman, G., Sahlin, P., Enerbäck, S., Bjursell, G. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Bile-salt-stimulated lipase and mucins from milk of 'secretor' mothers inhibit the binding of Norwalk virus capsids to their carbohydrate ligands. Ruvoën-Clouet, N., Mas, E., Marionneau, S., Guillon, P., Lombardo, D., Le Pendu, J. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Carboxylester lipase gene polymorphism as a risk of alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Miyasaka, K., Ohta, M., Takano, S., Hayashi, H., Higuchi, S., Maruyama, K., Tando, Y., Nakamura, T., Takata, Y., Funakoshi, A. Pancreas (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Circulating antibodies against an exocrine pancreatic enzyme in type 1 diabetes. Panicot, L., Mas, E., Thivolet, C., Lombardo, D. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Modified low density lipoprotein enhances the secretion of bile salt-stimulated cholesterol esterase by human monocyte-macrophages. species-specific difference in macrophage cholesteryl ester hydrolase. Li, F., Hui, D.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a major target of glycoxidative and lipoxidative damage in Pick's disease. Muntané, G., Dalfó, E., Martínez, A., Rey, M.J., Avila, J., Pérez, M., Portero, M., Pamplona, R., Ayala, V., Ferrer, I. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Predicting adaptation to presymptomatic DNA testing for late onset disorders: who will experience distress? Rotterdam Leiden Genetics Workgroup. DudokdeWit, A.C., Tibben, A., Duivenvoorden, H.J., Niermeijer, M.F., Passchier, J. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Clara cell secretory protein. Levels in BAL fluid after smoking cessation. Andersson, O., Cassel, T.N., Sköld, C.M., Eklund, A., Lund, J., Nord, M. Chest (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase onto sol-gel films for application to cholesterol biosensor. Singh, S., Singhal, R., Malhotra, B.D. Anal. Chim. Acta (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in the CEL VNTR cause a syndrome of diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Raeder, H., Johansson, S., Holm, P.I., Haldorsen, I.S., Mas, E., Sbarra, V., Nermoen, I., Eide, S.A., Grevle, L., Bjørkhaug, L., Sagen, J.V., Aksnes, L., Søvik, O., Lombardo, D., Molven, A., Njølstad, P.R. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Localization of the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis on chromosome 5. Bodmer, W.F., Bailey, C.J., Bodmer, J., Bussey, H.J., Ellis, A., Gorman, P., Lucibello, F.C., Murday, V.A., Rider, S.H., Scambler, P. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Chromosome 5 allele loss in human colorectal carcinomas. Solomon, E., Voss, R., Hall, V., Bodmer, W.F., Jass, J.R., Jeffreys, A.J., Lucibello, F.C., Patel, I., Rider, S.H. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Sulindac sulfone induced regression of rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Stoner, G.D., Budd, G.T., Ganapathi, R., DeYoung, B., Kresty, L.A., Nitert, M., Fryer, B., Church, J.M., Provencher, K., Pamukcu, R., Piazza, G., Hawk, E., Kelloff, G., Elson, P., van Stolk, R.U. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Human pharmacokinetic characterization and in vitro study of the interaction between doxorubicin and paclitaxel in patients with breast cancer. Gianni, L., Viganò, L., Locatelli, A., Capri, G., Giani, A., Tarenzi, E., Bonadonna, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Advanced glycation end product deposits in climatic droplet keratopathy. Kaji, Y., Nagai, R., Amano, S., Takazawa, Y., Fukayama, M., Oshika, T. The British journal of ophthalmology (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. FIP1L1-PDGFR alpha, a therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Cools, J. Verh. K. Acad. Geneeskd. Belg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Rectal cancer in FAP patient after sulindac. Thorson, A.G., Lynch, H.T., Smyrk, T.C. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Liver receptor homolog 1 controls the expression of carboxyl ester lipase. Fayard, E., Schoonjans, K., Annicotte, J.S., Auwerx, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcriptional regulation of the human carboxyl ester lipase gene in THP-1 monocytes: an E-box required for activation binds upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2. Bengtsson, S.H., Madeyski-Bengtson, K., Nilsson, J., Bjursell, G. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. cDNA cloning of carboxyl ester lipase from human pancreas reveals a unique proline-rich repeat unit. Reue, K., Zambaux, J., Wong, H., Lee, G., Leete, T.H., Ronk, M., Shively, J.E., Sternby, B., Borgström, B., Ameis, D. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and secretion of the pancreatic-type carboxyl ester lipase by human endothelial cells. Li, F., Hui, D.Y. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase: a circulating enzyme that modifies normal and oxidized lipoproteins in vitro. Shamir, R., Johnson, W.J., Morlock-Fitzpatrick, K., Zolfaghari, R., Li, L., Mas, E., Lombardo, D., Morel, D.W., Fisher, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Bile salt-stimulated carboxyl ester lipase influences lipoprotein assembly and secretion in intestine: a process mediated via ceramide hydrolysis. Kirby, R.J., Zheng, S., Tso, P., Howles, P.N., Hui, D.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Binding of C-reactive protein to modified low-density-lipoprotein particles: identification of cholesterol as a novel ligand for C-reactive protein. Taskinen, S., Kovanen, P.T., Jarva, H., Meri, S., Pentikäinen, M.O. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Bile Salt-Stimulated Lipase from Human Milk Binds DC-SIGN and Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transfer to CD4+ T Cells. Naarding, M.A., Dirac, A.M., Ludwig, I.S., Speijer, D., Lindquist, S., Vestman, E.L., Stax, M.J., Geijtenbeek, T.B., Pollakis, G., Hernell, O., Paxton, W.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Concerted action of human carboxyl ester lipase and pancreatic lipase during lipid digestion in vitro: importance of the physicochemical state of the substrate. Lindström, M.B., Sternby, B., Borgström, B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. The complete digestion of human milk triacylglycerol in vitro requires gastric lipase, pancreatic colipase-dependent lipase, and bile salt-stimulated lipase. Bernbäck, S., Bläckberg, L., Hernell, O. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning of the oncofetal isoform of the human pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase. Pasqualini, E., Caillol, N., Panicot, L., Mas, E., Lloubes, R., Lombardo, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Phosphorylation of the oncofetal variant of the human bile salt-dependent lipase. identification of phosphorylation site and relation with secretion process. Verine, A., Le Petit-Thevenin, J., Panicot-Dubois, L., Valette, A., Lombardo, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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